Background: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) has significant correlations with prospective hospitalization and mortality, as well as measures of anemia, inflammation, and nutrition in dialysis patients.
Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 adult patients of CKD selected from K&D clinic PGIMS, Rohtak. All the patients went under detailed socioeconomic, clinical, biochemical and radiological examination. The average of three measurements of body weight, height, triceps skin fold thickness (TST), and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were measured in all patients. MIS was calculated for all the patients.
Results: Out of total 100 patients, 64 were male and 36 were female. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition was 60%. A total of 42%, 16% and 2% patients had mild, moderate and severe malnutrition respectively. Our study also shows significant association between staging of CKD (3 to 5-D) and MIS. A significant negative correlation was found between MIS and factors such as BMI, eGFR, serum calcium and hemoglobin levels. A significant positive correlation of this score was found with blood urea serum creatinine, serum uric acid, serum potassium and serum phosphate. Multivariate analysis showed significant association between MIS and serum albumin, TIBC, BMI, family income and hs-CRP.
Conclusion: Assessment of key components of malnutrition and inflammation early in disease course will help to identify high risk subjects in whom modifying these predictors will help in providing active and healthy life for CKD patients.
H.K. Aggarwal, Deepak Jain, Geeta Dabas and R K Yadav
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging health problem in both developed and developing countries. Depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with chronic disease, but remain undertreated despite significant negative consequences on patients’ health. Assessment of key components of mental health early in disease course will help to identify high risk subjects in whom modifying these predictors will help in providing active and healthy life in CKD patients.
Methods: We did a cross sectional study in 200 patients of CKD stage III to V-D fulfilling the eligibility criteria who were on follow up in a single tertiary care center in the state of Haryana, India. We assessed the prevalence of anxiety, depression and insomnia and their correlation with demographic variables in these patients. The structured questionnaire used in this study gathered information on respondent demographic and disease characteristics, and information obtained from the HADS and PSQI questionnaire. Factors associated with anxiety, depression and insomnia were examined by a multiple logistic regression analysis.
Results: The prevalence of anxiety, depression and insomnia were found to be 71%, 69% and 86.5% respectively. As the CKD stage advanced, the prevalence as well as severity of these parameters increased. Anxiety, depression and sleep quality were found to be significantly correlated to unemployment, low income, low education, urban residence and presence of co-morbidities. The anxiety, depression and insomnia scores were found to have a strong negative correlation with eGFR, hemoglobin, serum calcium (p <0.01) and a positive correlation with TLC, blood urea, serum creatinine and serum phosphate (p <0.05).
Conclusion: We observed a high prevalence of anxiety, depression and insomnia in CKD patients. There is a need to develop strategies to accurately identify “high risk” subjects who may benefit from preventive measures before complications occur. By identifying CKD patients with high risk of developing these mental health related issues, healthcare provider may be better able to ensure the provision of appropriate rehabilitation to this population.
H. K. Aggarwal, Deepak Jain, Pulkit Chhabra and R. K. Yadav
Background: Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in CKD patients and is characterized by low bone mass leading to decreased bone strength. It is associated with an increased risk of fracture, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Bisphosphonate administration decreases fracture risk in postmenopausal females with osteoporosis. There are limited studies showing effects of short term alendronate administration on BMD in predialysis osteoporotic patients with CKD.
Methods: This study was conducted on fifty adult patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of seventeen patients with CKD stage 3 (eGFR 45-30 ml/min/1.73m2) and Group B comprised thirty three patients with CKD stage 4 (eGFR 30-15 ml/min/1.73m2). The study included male patients between age 18-75 years and premenopausal non pregnant females older than 18 years of age. All the patients were osteoporotic having T score < −2.5 on DEXA scan. The patients were administered 70 mg alendronate tablet once a week for 6 weeks. Renal parameters, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels were assayed at baseline for 6 months. Serum (iPTH) level (pg/ml) was measured by chemiluminescent immune assay (CLIA) method and serum 25 Hydroxy Vitamin D level (ng/ml) was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured at baseline for 6 months, by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur and lowest values were included. The results were obtained for T score, Z score and bone mineral density (g/cm2).
Results: The BMD, T score and Z score increased in both groups after 6 months with a statistically significant difference in the treatment group. In Group A, T score, Z score and BMD (g/cm2) increased from −2.60±0.086, −2.13±0.28, and 0.80±0.008 at baseline to −2.57±0.097, −2.11±0.26 and 0.81±0.008 after six months. In Group B, the T score, Z score and BMD (g/cm2) increased from −3.17±0.24, −2.82±0.33 and 0.738±0.03 to −3.16±0.25, −2.66±0.95 and 0.743±0.03 after six months with a statistically significant difference. eGFR decreased in both groups but the difference was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The serum iPTH levels increased after 6 months in both groups with a statistically insignificant difference. There was an increase in serum calcium and decrease in serum phosphate levels after six months, however the difference was statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The SAP values decreased in both groups after six months with a statistically insignificant difference. The main side-effect in the alendronate group was the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in two subjects.
Conclusion: Low-dose alendronate, administered for a limited duration, appears to be well tolerated in CKD patients. The BMD increased in both groups suggesting a bone-preserving effect of alendronate.