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The Evaluation of the Initial Skew Rate for Printed Text

In this manuscript the algorithm for identification of the initial skew rate for printed text is presented. Proposed algorithm creates rectangular hull around all text characters. Combining nearby rectangular hulls form objects. After applying mathematical morphology on it, the biggest object is characterized as well as selected. Rectangular hull gravity center forms reference points on these objects used as a base for calculation ieestimation of the initial skew rate. Using the least square method, initial skew rate is calculated. Comparative analysis of the origin and estimated skew rate is presented as well as discussed. Algorithm is examined with a number of printed text examples. Proposed algorithm showed robustness for skewness of printed text in the wide range.

Estimation of the Fundamental Frequency of the Speech Signal Compressed by G.723.1 Algorithm Applying PCC Interpolation

In this paper the results of the estimation of the fundamental frequency of the speech signal modeled by the G.723.1 method are analyzed. The estimation of the fundamental frequency was performed by the Peaking-Peaks algorithm with the implemented Parametric Cubic Convolution (PCC) interpolation. The efficiency of PCC was tested for Keys, Greville and Greville two-parametric kernel. Depending on MSE a window that gives optimal results was chosen.

Abstarct

This manuscript proposes an extension to the water flow algorithm for text line segmentation. Basic algorithm assumes hypothetical water flows under few specified angles of the document image frame from left to right and vice versa. As a result, unwetted image regions that incorporate text are extracted. These regions are of the major importance for text line segmentation. The extension of the basic algorithm means modification of water flow function that creates the unwetted region. Hence, the linear water flow function used in the basic algorithm is changed with its power function counterpart. Extended method was tested, examined and evaluated under different text samples. Results are encouraging due to improving text line segmentation which is a key process stage.

One Way of Output Voltage Hold Circuit Improvement at Low Resistance Comparator

The article presents a way of improvement the important performances of an electronic low resistance comparator. The practical usage of a realized instrument prototype shows some disadvantages: the time until the result appears at the display is to long (the stationary state establishing sequence should be shorter) because of the negative influence of parasitic voltages. Modification of output voltage hold circuit gives quite convenient instrument response time. The parasitic voltage disturbance is decreased to acceptable value, even though the comparator is modified for multirange measurement. The paper describes some details of a solution and its conformation in practical usage.

The paper presents the algorithm for text line segmentation based on the oriented anisotropic Gaussian kernel. Initially, the document image is split into connected components achieved by bounding boxes. These connected components are cleared from redundant fragments. Furthermore, the binary moments are applied to each of these connected components evaluating local text skewing. According to this information the orientation of the anisotropic Gaussian kernel is set. After the algorithm application the boundary growing areas around connected components are established. These areas are of major importance for the evaluation of text line segmentation. For testing purposes, the algorithm is evaluated under different text samples. Comparative analysis between algorithm with and without orientation based on the anisotropic Gaussian kernel is made. The results show the improvement in the domain of text line segmentation.

Abstract

The paper considers the level of the extremely low-frequency magnetic field, which is produced by laptop computers. The magnetic field, which is characterized by extremely low frequencies up to 300 Hz is measured due to its hazardous effects to the laptop user's health. The experiment consists of testing 13 different laptop computers in normal operation conditions. The measuring of the magnetic field is performed in the adjacent neighborhood of the laptop computers. The measured data are presented and then classified. The classification is performed by the K-Medians method in order to determine the critical positions of the laptop. At the end, the measured magnetic field values are compared with the critical values suggested by different safety standards. It is shown that some of the laptop computers emit a very strong magnetic field. Hence, they must be used with extreme caution.

Abstract

Human exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field represents a risk to their health. This paper takes into consideration the level of an extremely low-frequency magnetic field between 30 and 300 Hz emitted by an AC laptop adapter. The experiment consists of testing 17 different AC adapters for laptops. During the testing, laptops are operated in a normal operating conditions as well as under heavy load. The magnetic field measurement is conducted in the area around the AC adapter. Obtained data is evaluated according to the critical level of the magnetic field proposed by safety standards. Furthermore, data is classified by a K-medians method in order to determine the critical levels of the magnetic field exposure in the nearby area of the AC adapter. Obtained classifications are evaluated according to safety standards, giving a critical analysis of magnetic field areas at risk. Due to emission of a very strong magnetic field in certain areas, a recommendation for safety use of the AC adapter is proposed.

Abstract

In this paper, the extremely low frequency magnetic field produced by the tablet computers is explored. The measurement of the tablet computers’ magnetic field is performed by using a measuring geometry previously proposed for the laptop computers. The experiment is conducted on five Android tablet computers. The measured values of the magnetic field are compared to the widely accepted TCO safety standard. Then, the results are classified by the Self-Organizing Map method in order to create different levels of safety or danger concerning the magnetic field to which tablet computer users are exposed. Furthermore, a brief comparison of the obtained magnetic field levels with the ones from typical laptops is performed. At the end, a practical suggestion on how to avoid the high exposure to the low frequency magnetic field emitted by the tablet computers is given.