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Open access

Gabriella Gábos, Dumitru Moldovan and Daniela Dobru

Abstract

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) caused by a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor enzyme (C1-INH) is a very rare, autosomal dominantly inherited genetic disorder, characterized by recurrent peripheral angioedema, painful abdominal attacks and episodes of laryngeal edema. Abdominal attacks are frequent symptoms in adult HAE patients, occurring in more than 90% of the cases. Angioedema in the bowel or abdomen can occur in the absence of cutaneous manifestations and may be easily misdiagnosed unless the clinician has a high degree of awareness to include HAE in the differential diagnosis. Misdiagnosis is associated with inadequate treatments, including unnecessary surgical procedures. Any patient who presents recurrent episodes of swelling should be evaluated for HAE caused by C1-INH deficiency. New therapies could save lives and dramatically improve their quality of life.

Open access

Alina Boeriu, Ofelia Pascarenco, Olga Brusnic, Danusia Onisor, Cristian Boeriu and Daniela Dobru

Abstract

Narrow band imaging represents a promising endoscopic technique which allows real time characterization of colonic lesions by assessment of mucosal and vascular patterns. Due to the ability to make an optical biopsy, NBI could become a useful tool in clinical decisions regarding therapy and surveillance. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the optical diagnosis of colonic lesions by using NBI endoscopy. We reviewed research articles, reviews and meta-analyses from the PubMed and MEDLINE containing relevant data in this field. The validity of endoscopic criteria for the differentiation of adenoma and hyperplastic polyps, as well as of invasive cancer, has been evaluated in recent studies. Based on the prediction of polyp histology, new potential cost saving strategies have been proposed. Many reports are focused on the accuracy of optical biopsy by using NBI for predicting colonoscopy surveillance intervals and adenomatous histology in diminutive polyps, according to the Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable Endoscopic Innovations statement. Optical diagnosis is still under evaluation, and cannot yet be endorsed in routine practice. The high level of performance achieved by expert endoscopists needs to be replicated in the community utilizing reliable and standardized endoscopic criteria.

Open access

Crina Pop, B. Kozma, Silvia Drasovean, Daniela Dobru and Alina Boeriu

Abstract

Background and aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most important health problem, with an increasing incidence worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that predict HCC occurrence in a group of patients with liver cirrhosis developed on various etiologies.

Material and Methods: A total of 282 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis seen between January 1, 2013 and July 31, 2014 were enrolled in a prospective study. Data from patient’s history, physical exams, laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound were collected.

Results: 282 patients were included in the study with a median age of 59.6 and a male/female ratio of 1.38/1; 12.41% (35) were diagnosed with HCC. Alcohol consumption was documented in 19 cases (54.28%), without statistical association (p=0.621), and 7 (20%) were smokers (p=0.403). According to etiological factors of liver cirrhosis: 7 (20%) had background B virus infection, 15 (42.85%) HCV infection and 11 (31.42%) cases incriminated other causes of cirrhosis (alcohol). Chi2 test identified a statistically significant association between the occurrence of HCC and viral etiology of cirrhosis (p = 0.001, r = 18,830). No statistical association was found between Child Pugh scoring of cirrhosis and HCC (p=0.774) and a statistically significant association but inversely proportional was identified between neoplasia and obesity (p=0.008, r= -0.157).

Conclusion: In conclusion the viral etiology of liver cirrhosis is found to be an important risk factor for HCC, and liver cancer was inversely associated with nutritional status.

Open access

A Hintea, A Dobre, M Coroş, Roşca Ancuţa and Dobru Daniela

Abstract

Objectives: The objective of this research was to study the prognostic factors in gastric cancer.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 5-year survival in 112 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma operated between 2004-2009. We used the Surgery Clinic I and Health Insurance House databases for study of the following parameters: age, sex, depth of invasion, histological type, surgery, number of lymph nodes excised and reported overrun / removed lymphnodes.

Results: There was no significant survival difference related to gender aspects. We found significant differences in the survival rate in relation to the tumours confined to the mucosa and muscularis mucosae (100% and 60% respectively), compared to the cases with deeper invasion (p<0.05). Intestinal type presented a superior however insignificant prognosis compared to diffuse type (22% versus 5.66%). Five years survival was slightly lower after D1 lymphadenectomy D1 compared to D2 lymphadenectomy (25.92% versus 29.16%). We found large differences among the number of perigastric lymph nodes (between 3 and 42 in groups of 1 to 6) nodules. Survival rates were significantly higher (p <0.05) in patients with overrun lymphnodes between 0 and <20%, compared to those with overrun ones over 20% of all excised nodes (23.07%, 55.55% vs. 3.89%).

Conclusions: Merely the number of removed lymph nodes may be a source of error in staging if not taken into account the groups they belong to; the most constant individual prognostic factors are the depth of invasion and overrun/removed lymph nodes report; D2 lymphadenectomy has superior results in terms of 5 years survival compared to D1 lymphadenectomy, but, at least in our study, the difference was insignificant.

Open access

Andrei-Constantin Ioanovici, Andrei-Marian Feier, Ioan Țilea and Daniela Dobru

Abstract

Colorectal cancer is an important health issue, both in terms of the number of people affected and the associated costs. Colonoscopy is an important screening method that has a positive impact on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The association of colonoscopy with computer-aided diagnostic tools is currently under researchers’ focus, as various methods have already been proposed and show great potential for a better management of this disease. We performed a review of the literature and present a series of aspects, such as the basics of machine learning algorithms, different computational models as well as their benchmarks expressed through measurements such as positive prediction value and accuracy of detection, and the classification of colorectal polyps. Introducing computer-aided diagnostic tools can help clinicians obtain results with a high degree of confidence when performing colonoscopies. The growing field of machine learning in medicine will have a big impact on patient management in the future.

Open access

Kozma Bela, Pop Crina, Petrut Madalina, Drasovean Silvia and Dobru Daniela

Abstract

Background and Aim: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be the most common of all liver disorders, and its prevalence is almost certainly increasing. Because of the presence of NAFLD in metabolic syndrome and of latter’s role in the appearance of colorectal polyps, many studies have tried to find a link between the liver disease and colorectal polyps. The aim of the study was to determine whether NAFLD is a risk factor for colorectal polyps.

Material and Methods: We examined 560 patients diagnosed with NAFLD who underwent colonoscopy at Mures County Hospital, between January 2011 and June 2014. Fatty liver disease was assessed by abdominal ultrasound, with NAFLD defined as fatty liver disease in the absence of alcohol use of > 40 g/week or other secondary causes. We divided the 560 patients into two groups, according to the presence or absence of polyps. Data were collected from patient’s history, physical exam, laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound.

Results: The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 16.6% (93) in the NAFLD patients. 51 (54.8%) of them were female, and the Chi2 test identified a statistically significant association between the female gender and the appearance of polyps (p=0.028; OR=1.652; CI= 1.052-2.596). No statistical association was found between the smoking status and the development of colorectal polyps (p=0.245) and only 18 of 93 patients were smokers. Of 93 patients with polyps, 68 (73.1%) have associated diabetes mellitus, but without statistical correlation (p=0.214). According to family history of colorectal polyps none of the patients have data about a possible polyposis pathology.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a relationship between some characteristics of NAFLD and the development of colorectal polyps. Further studies are required to confirm whether NAFLD is a risk factor for the appearance of polyps.

Open access

Alina Boeriu, Olga Brusnic, Danusia Onișor, Ofelia Pascarenco, C. Boeriu and Daniela Dobru

Abstract

The diagnosis of dysplasia and early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus by conventional endoscopy is based on a four- quadrant random biopsies protocol that is prone to sampling errors. Novel endoscopic techniques have been developed to enhance the detection of premalignant and malignant lesions by real time assessment of microvasculare architecture and mucosal structure. Chromoendoscopy with magnification has improved the visualization of lesions, but the dye application impairs a clear evaluation of vascular network. Narrow band imaging endoscopy enhances vascular imaging by using narrow bandwidth lights, with penetration to superficial mucosal structures. Different classification systems of mucosal and vascular patterns have been developed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of non-dysplastic and dysplastic BE, as well as of early esophageal cancer. This article is focused on both the clinical benefits and controversies surrounding conventional and advanced endoscopic methods used for screening and surveillance of patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Current evidence shows that the adoption of new technology in routine practice requires a high level of performance as well as the standardization of various classification systems.

Open access

Danusia Onişor, Alina Boeriu, Ofelia Pascarenco, Olga Brusnic and Daniela Dobru

Abstract

Background: The clinical utility of non-invasive markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been intensively studied. The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) in differentiating between UC and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and in estimating inflammatory activity in UC.

Method: A total number of 140 patients were included in the study. All patients underwent ileocolonoscopy with biopsies, quantitative determination of FC, and blood tests (white blood cell count, CRP, ESR). The severity of UC was assessed by using the Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index (UCDAI) and Mayo endoscopic score.

Results: In patients with active UC the mean values of FC were 373.8 +/- 146.3 μg/g, significantly higher than those in the inactive UC (mean values 36.04 +/- 13.25 μg/g), and in IBS (42.9 +/- 16.00 μg/g). In univariate regression analysis, elevated FC levels strongly correlated with pancolitis (p=0.0001), UCDAI and Mayo scores (p=0.0001), and elevated CRP levels. In multivariate regression model, FC was positively associated with severe pancolitis, and elevated CRP. The optimal cutoff value of FC for the prediction of severe pancolitis (Mayo score˃ 3) was 540 μg/g. We obtained 71.4% sensitivity (CI95%: 41.95-91.6) and 96.1% specificity (CI95%: 89.2 -99.2) of FC in assessing the severity of inflammation in UC patients.

Conclusion: FC is a promising marker that can be used in clinical practice to select patients with organic intestinal disorders, compared with those with functional disorders. It also correlates very well with the extent of lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in UC, with increased sensitivity and specificity.

Open access

Gabos Gabriella, Friciu Adina, Diac Raluca, Magdas Annamaria, C Crăciun, M Coroş and Dobru Daniela

Abstract

Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most frequently mezenchimale tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to analyze the results after surgical treatment of GIST and identify key risk factors influencing postoperative course of these patients in order to discover the most effective therapeutic methods to significantly improve postoperative course of these patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent surgical removal of GISTs from 2004-2014. Patient demographics, criterion for admission, surgery, complications, secondary dissemination, histopathological data and clinical course were analized following patient survival at 12, 24, 36 and to 60 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using the MedCalc software program, and survival analysis was done by Kaplan Meyer.

Results: During this period we analyzed a total of 28 cases, including 13 males and 15 females with age from 33 to 80 years (median, 61). The tumor was located in the stomach (15 cases; 53%), small intestine in ten cases (36%) and other sites in three patients (11%). Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size (P <0,05), criterion for admission (P<0,05) and secondary dissemination (P<0,05) are independed prognostic factors.

Conclusions: Factors like: age and sex of patients, size and tumor site, presence or absence of metastasis, are prognostic risk factors with significant differences in the evolution of patients with operable GIST. The small number of patients and retrospective nature of the study have created difficulties in the estimation where we concluded the need of a prospective multicentric study.

Open access

Silvia Cosmina Drasovean, Diana Elena Morărașu, Ofelia Daniela Pascarenco, Olga Brsunic, Danusia Maria Onișor, Boeriu Alina and Daniela Ecaterina Dobru

Abstract

Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

Material and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the esophagogastroduodenoscopies with biopsies performed between January 1, 2014 and October 31, 2014. Collected and analyzed data included age, gender, symptoms, endoscopic and histological findings.

Results: Four hundred eighty-two patients were included in the study. One hundred thirty-seven patients had gastric intestinal metaplasia, which presented a prevalence was 28,4%. A similar distribution between gender was observed with a significant increase of gastric intestinal metaplasia with age (p=0,0001). Regarding the indication for endoscopy, the prevalence of gastric intestinal metaplasia was: 17 % among patients with dyspeptic syndrome, 2 % in patients with anemia and 5 % in patients examined for other symptoms. Endoscopic findings showed gastric intestinal metaplasia was significantly associated with atrophic gastritis (p=0.0001), erythematous gastritis (p=0.0079), while there was no association with erosive gastritis (p=0.24) and peptic ulcer (p=0.19).

Conclusions: Gastric intestinal metaplasia is frequently recorded in patients undergoing in esophagogastroduodenoscopies with associated biopsies. Endoscopic findings like erythema and atrophy is strongly associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia emphasizing the importance of sampling biopsies.