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  • Author: D. Miedzińska x
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M. Kwietniewski, D. Miedzińska and T. Niezgoda

Abstract

The problem of effective gas extraction from Polish shale rocks is an interesting research subject for scientists. A properly selected proppant, which protects cracks from closing during the fracturing process, inestimably contributes to an increase of extraction. Grains of proppant are transported along with a fracturing medium to reach the deepest regions of the crack. The proper support of the crack provides an easy flow of gas, therefore it is important in terms of extraction efficiency. This paper shows the interactions of a proppant grain with the crack surface in shale rock. FEM analysis was conducted to observe the stress region, which is generated as a result of pressing the grain into the crack surface. A model of a sphere which was pressed into the rock model with constant velocity was applied. The received results of stress depend on material properties and a range of proppant grain pressing.

Open access

S. Stanisławek, P. Kędzierski and D. Miedzińska

Abstract

Hydraulic fracturing of rocks boosts the production rate by increasing the fracture-face surface area through the use of a pressurized liquid. Complex stress distribution and magnitude are the main factors that hinder the use of information gathered from in situ hydraulic fracturing in other locations. Laboratory tests are a good method for precisely determining the characteristics of these processes. One of the most important parameters is breakdown pressure, defined as the wellbore pressure necessary to induce a hydraulic fracture. Therefore, the main purpose of this investigation is to verify fracture resistance of rock samples fractured with the assistance of the most popular industry fluids. The experiments were carried out using a stand designed specifically for laboratory hydraulic fracturing. Repeatable results with a relative error within the range of 6-11% prove that the experimental methodology was correct. Moreover, the obtained results show that fracturing pressure depends significantly on fluid type. In the case of a water test, the fracturing pressure was 7.1±0.4MPa. A similar result was achieved for slickwater, 7.5±0.7MPa; however, a much lower value (4.7±0.5MPa) was registered in the case of carbon dioxide.