Raluca Enache, Dorin Sarafoleanu and Codrut Sarafoleanu
BACKGROUND. Computerized dynamic posturography is the most important battery test designed to assess the ability to use visual, vestibular and proprioceptive cues in the maintenance of posture. Foam posturography reduces the availability of proprioceptive inputs, which makes more difficult the balance control.
OBJECTIVE. The objective of the study was to assess the clinical use of foam posturography in evaluating peripheral vestibular dysfunction.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We evaluated 41 patients with vestibular disorders and 41 normal patients by using the sensory organization test in eyes opened, eyes closed and mislead vision conditions with and without the foam. We measured several parameters: the position of the center of pressure, the displacement in the center of pressure in anteroposterior and mediolateral planes and Romberg’s ratio on static and foam rubber.
RESULTS. The values of all parameters were significantly higher in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders than in the control group (p<0.05). Also. comparing the Romberg test results, the foam surface used by the patient was larger than the static one.
CONCLUSION. Foam posturography can be a reliable test in assessing patients with peripheral vestibulopathy, being also able to identify the visual and proprioceptive dependence levels.
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease consisting of recurrent angioedema attacks, varying in severity, possibly life-threatening and with frequent involvement of the head and neck areas. The patophysiology of HAE differs from histamine-mediated allergic angioedema. Three types of reduced quality or quantity in various complement or coagulation factors, leading to massive release of bradykinin, increase vascular permeability and produce capilary leakage. Clinical manifestations of HAE include swelling located predominantly in the head and neck area, hands, feet and urogenital area and abdominal pain caused by edema of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa. Diagnosis requires laboratory tests for complement components and genetic tests. A timely and correct diagnosis in the emergency room is of utmost importance, the medical treatment of HAE being substantially different from that of allergic angioedema. Although new therapies are available and in development, airway intervention and surgery are still life-saving procedures and the ENT surgeon is an important part of the multidisciplinary team managing an HAE attack.
BACKGROUND. Radiotherapy, associated with chemotherapy, is the main method of treatment in both early and advanced stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) provides high doses of radiation to the primary tumor, sparing the organs at risk. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is one of the most promising radiation methods which produces superior target coverage, improving the protection of organs at risk and reduces treatment time.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a retrospective study on 30 patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer and admitted in “Sfanta Maria” Clinical Hospital between October 2012 and December 2014. All patients have undergone VMAT-IMRT associated with induction or concurrent chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, patients were followed up at one, three and six months, and then every six months for 2 years.
RESULTS. At the end of the radio-chemotherapy treatment, 27 patients (90%) had a complete tumor and lymphatic response and 3 of them (10%) presented a partial response. At the end of the follow-up period, we observed 5 patients with recurrences, including 2 deceased.
CONCLUSION. VMAT-IMRT in association with chemotherapy treatment is well tolerated by patients. The good results reflected in high rates of cured patients, the low incidence of side effects, recommend this treatment plan as an optimal indication for nasopharyngeal tumors.
Elena Patrascu, Claudiu Manea and Codrut Sarafoleanu
Fungal rhinosinusitis is an important pathological entity, a highly controversial topic in the medical world today, by the various research directions it offers. In order to be able to predict a patient’s prognosis and his response to treatment, first we must have a classification of fungal rhinosinusitis. The authors considered it is important to make a distinction between invasive and noninvasive forms of fungal rhinosinusitis. The most important step in the management of fungal rhinosinusitis is to have a correct diagnosis, based on strong criteria, which will lead to a better prognosis of this disease. Because of its invasiveness potential, especially in patients at risk, it is essential to have a correct and fast diagnosis in case of fungal rhinosinusitis, in order to begin the treatment as fast as possible, for a favourable prognosis. The only way to establish diagnosis in a reliable way is to make a detailed clinical examination and to take biopsy samples.
Medicine is in an era of technical development and innovation. Creating a tympanic membrane by using a 3D printer can exceed the disadvantages that classic graft materials have. The field of otolaryngology can be experiencing a paradigm shift towards the use of 3D-printer.
Codrut Sarafoleanu, Alexis Vuzitas and Claudiu Manea
Malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract are high morbidity bearing and life-threatening diseases, which require thorough care from diagnostic suspicion and confirmation to surgical and/or oncologic treatment and rehabilitation. Difficulties in managing head and neck cancers arise from delays in diagnosis and treatment caused by either patient-related factors or healthcare system-related factors. Tumor origin and stage determine whether surgical excision is feasible, the approach required for safe excision, the extent of functional and aesthetic sacrifice required to attain oncologic safety and the need for reconstructive surgery. A thorough and systematic preoperative risk versus benefits assessment to select potential surgical candidates and give realistic outcomes is important from both a medical and a legal point of view. Because tumors in the head and neck region frequently involve more than one system and sensory organ, potential loss of function from either the disease course, surgical or nonsurgical treatment should be taken into account form a quality of life perspective. Effective management of head and neck cancer patients requires the cooperation and combined effort of a multidisciplinary team of surgeons, physicians and other workers over a long period of time which, in the absence of a specialised head and neck cancer centre and guidelines, can lead to increased morbidity and mortality, and patient dissatisfaction.
Dysphagia is a common disorder associated with a large number of etiologies like aging, stroke, traumatic brain injury, head and neck cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, structural changes or congenital abnormalities. The type of the treatment and its results depend on the type, severity and the cause of dysphagia. The primary goal of dysphagia treatment is to improve the swallowing process and decrease the risk of aspiration.
Along with the existing rehabilitation swallowing treatments, new adjunctive therapy options developed, one of them being the neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).
The authors present the principles of NMES, a small literature review about the results of this therapy and their experience in using transcutaneous NMES in dysphagia patients.
Chronic rhinosinusitis represents an inflammatory condition of the nose and paranasal sinuses, characterized by two or more symptoms. The diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis is made, most often, clinically; however, in the case of chronic rhinosinusitis, imaging, bacteriological, as well as the histological investigation are necessary in order to establish the diagnosis and to exclude other diseases that have caused and/or are associated with rhinosinusitis. Different scores (clinical, imagistic) have been described over time, being considered as important factors in the therapeutic decision (surgical or conservative) in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. The authors present their experience in using and relying on endoscopic and histological scores.
BACKGROUND. Olfaction is one the most important senses; however, even nowadays it is incompletely known in humans from an anatomical and physiological point of view, but also as concerns the assessment methods and treatment. The main causes for acquired olfactory dysfunctions involve inflammatory pathology (local or general) and head trauma. Olfactory impairment after traumatic head injury (THI) is more frequent than believed. Today there are a number of tests for assessing the loss of smell, but more studies are needed in order to establish standardized protocols for patients with such pathology after THI. This uncertainty is more and more exploited by malingerers.
OBJECTIVE. The aim of the paper was to find in literature the necessary information in order to permit a correct management of a patient with olfactory impairment after head trauma and to establish new protocols that may help identify malingerers when medico-legal implications exists.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied an amount of works and studies in order to highlight the diagnosis options specialist have, if such a case is encountered (olfactory loss after THI).
RESULTS. Recent studies show that great progress has been made, but more scientific research is needed. Specialists still search correlation between all diagnosis methods.
CONCLUSION. Olfactory disorders are an important topic given their importance in patient quality of life, but also for the medico-legal implications.