OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the foreign aspects in nasal septal deformities.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Mladina classification of the nasal septal deformities was used.
RESULTS. Types 5 and 6 have been dominantly inherited. The mechanism of the onset and possible connection to the trauma against the nose, as well as clinical implications of the remaining four types of the nasal septal deformities, have been explained and described in detail, giving the court expert witnesses the excellent opportunity to make a reliable and valuable finding.
CONCLUSION. Type 5 and type 6 nasal septal deformities are never the consequence of the trauma against the nose. In most of the cases, this also concerns type 3. This type as well as type 7 require the latero-lateral and anterior-posterior X-rays of the nasal bones in cases when the nasal pyramid is concurrently deformed. Types 1 and 2 in most of the cases are connected to trauma against the nose.
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this article is to highlight some terms which have been ingrained in the rhinosinusology literature.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. It regards the term “accessory ostium” and the term “septal deviation”. The well-known and deeply ingrained term “accessory ostium” has been widely used for decades, but essentially it is absolutely incorrect. “Septal deviation” is an inadequate term for the changes of the nasal septum form.
RESULTS. From the linguistic point of view, “accessory” means something (or someone) which (or who) helps someone or gives support (to something or someone) in some process. We recommend the use of the term “defect of the fontanel” instead of “accessory ostium”. The use of the term “septal deformity” (from Latin: de forma, meaning the change in the shape) is etymologically much more appropriate. Septal deformities appear in man in several, well defined shapes and, therefore, can be correctly classified. The classification contributes to the further scientific conversations regarding the clinical issues connected to the changes of the nasal septum form.
CONCLUSION. The usual term “accessory ostium” suggests almost a normal finding on the lateral nasal wall, but, on the contrary, it clearly signalizes that the respective maxillary sinus is chronically inflamed. The usual term “septal deviation” is not at all specific and only suggests that something is wrong with the position of the nasal septum. It does not at all imply any of the six well known types of septal deformities in man.
Headache is a common complaint which otolaryngologists frequently have to evaluate and treat in practice. Migraine, tension, cluster and sinus-rooted headaches are the most confronted ones in primary visits. Therefore, considerations of multidiscipline may be required to diagnose the rhinogenic and non-rhinogenic headaches. Rhinogenic headache is a distinct type of headache that has attracted an increased amount of attention in the recent years. The mechanism of headache is not yet known. In fact, the treatments of the above-mentioned headaches are different, but they may intersect in some cases. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and opioids are often used in headache treatment. Codeine, a well-known opioid derivative, has been prescribed for analgesia for a long time. This review aims to discuss the possible use and efficiency of NSAID and codeine combinations in the treatment of rhinogenic headaches.
Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) is a common event in clinical practice. The authors, all members of the Italian Society of Rhinology, analysed 100 cases from different ENT Departments. The causes of NLDO, according to the etiology, can be divided into two classes: idiopathic primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and secondary. The aim of the study was to describe an association between the sign and symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis and a complaint of epiphora.