The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most competitive businesses in the world. Supply chain in this industry has been directed towards the production of large batches to avoid lack of supplies, and the achievement of regulatory requirements, at the cost of high level of inventory, higher costs and inventory write-off due to expiration or other reasons. In recent years this industry is facing major changes and challenges such as intense globalization processes, increased competition and innovations in technologies, which has broadened and deepened risks in supply chain.
The paper reports the results of the study of the risk in distribution processes of Slovenian pharmaceutical companies, which was conducted among five companies and aims to draw attention to risks that arise in supply chain, to emphasize the importance of their management and to present a model for an effective assessment of risk in companies, developed at the Faculty of Logistics.
The term of logistic customer service is defined as the abilities or skills to meet the customer’s requirements and expectations, chiefly in terms of the time and place of deliveries, while using all available forms of logistic activity, including transport, storage, and the management of inventories, information and packages. As each of the logistic activities has an effect on the customer receiving right product or service, in its proper condition, in the correct time and space, and at reasonable costs, so seeking the proper service comes down to managing logistic activities in such a manner, as to achieve the essential level of customer satisfaction at the lowest possible costs.
The identified elements of logistic customer service in an organization are placed on a specific level, as assessed from the perspective of the purchasers' expectations. Among various methods for measuring customer service level, or quality, which are described in the literature on the subject, the SERVQUAL is recognized as one of the most effective. The SERVQUAL method relies on measuring the differences that exist between the quality, as perceived by a customer, and the quality demanded by that customer from a specific service. In order to determine the difference, both the customer's expectations for the service level, and their fulfilment by a specific organization need to be examined at the same time.
The elements of logistic customer service of the Silesian Province’s (region in southern Poland) commercial cargo motor transport enterprises under study are placed on a measurable level, as evaluated from the perspective of the recipients of offered transport services. The measurement of the logistic customer service level, as found in the entities examined, was made using the SERVQUAL method. The survey questionnaire used in the study was constructed based on 22 logistic customer service determinants. Questionnaire forms were filled by 294 customers of 147 Silesian Province’s commercial cargo motor transport enterprises examined, i.e. two customers of each enterprise.
The article presents theoretical basis for the measurement of the logistic customer service level by the SERVQUAL method, description of acquiring the research material, analysis of examination results and conclusions.
Milan Škorupa, Tomáš Čechovič, Martin Kendra and Borut Jereb
Transport is one of the human activities that increases the amount of greenhouse gases in the air. CO2 is the main cause of global warming and contribute for around 80 % of all greenhouse gas emissions. The paper presents CO2 production based on the amount of sold fuel in Slovakia and Slovenia. Based on the obtained data, the calculations about the production of CO2 according to the type of fuel was made. The conducted research has focused on the issue of traffic congestion and to reduce CO2 emissions by 15 % in total by 2030, as Slovakia and Slovenia concluded an agreement with other EU members in 2009. External costs calculation was made with average price of 1 tonne emission credit in 2016 and with presumed average price in 2019. The case study takes into account the consumption of the gasoline and diesel in transport throughout all Slovakia and in Slovenia.
Dejan Dragan, Abolfazl Keshavarzsaleh, Tomaž Kramberger, Borut Jereb and Maja Rosi
Forecasting is important in many branches of logistics, including the logistics related to Tourism supply chains. With an increasing inflow of American tourists, planning and forecasting the US tourists’ inflow to Slovenia have gained far more importance attention amongst scholars and practitioners. This study, therefore, was conducted to forecast the American tourists’ inflow to Slovenia using one of the predictive models based on the exponential smoothing approach, namely Holt-Winters damped additive (HWDA) exponential smoothing method. The model was modified by several improvements, while the obtained results were generalized to other supply chain components. The results show that the forecasting system can predict well the observed inflow, while the methodology used to derive the model might have enriched the plethora of existing practical forecasting approaches in the tourism domain. Benchmarking demonstrates that the proposed model outperforms a competitive ARIMA model and official forecasts. The practical implications are also discussed in this paper.
Klemen Prah, Abolfazl Keshavarzsaleh, Tomaž Kramberger, Borut Jereb and Dejan Dragan
The paper addresses the optimal bus stops allocation in the Laško municipality. The goal is to achieve a cost reduction by proper re-designing of a mandatory pupils’ transportation to their schools. The proposed heuristic optimization algorithm relies on data clustering and Monte Carlo simulation. The number of bus stops should be minimal possible that still assure a maximal service area, while keeping the minimal walking distances children have to go from their homes to the nearest bus stop. The working mechanism of the proposed algorithm is explained. The latter is driven by three-dimensional GIS data to take into account as much realistic dynamic properties of terrain as possible. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an optimal solution with only 37 optimal bus stops covering 94.6 % of all treated pupils despite the diversity and wideness of municipality, as well as the problematic characteristics of terrains’ elevation. The calculated bus stops will represent important guidelines to their actual physical implementation.
Tomáš Čechovič, Milan Dedík, Martin Kendra, Vladimír Ľupták and Borut Jereb
At present, high traffic intensity level on the roads currently saturates a great demand for individual transportation. Mobility is an important part of everyday activities in cities. The increasing number of passenger and freight vehicles on the widening transport infrastructure raises several problems. The range of use of public passenger transport does satisfy enough the citizens needs and its use is constantly decreasing, especially in the new EU countries. One of the reasons is also the growing sale and production of new passenger cars in the EU, resulting in congestion in the road infrastructure of cities and environmental problems. These issues are dealt with the modern City Logistics concept. The contribution focused on the basic principles of city logistics, the reasons for its development and, in particular, the possibilities of practical use. An example is the city of Trenčín in Slovakia, where a regional rail passenger transport is proposed for city traffic service including Park and Ride system.
Vlado Popović, Borut Jereb, Milorad Kilibarda, Milan Andrejić, Abolfazl Keshavarzsaleh and Dejan Dragan
Improvements in battery technology make electric vehicles more and more suitable for the use as electricity storages. Many benefits could be achieved by using electric vehicles for storing electricity in their batteries. This paper talks about the idea of electric vehicles as electricity storages in electric power systems. The idea has a great number of supporters, but also a significant part of the professional community believes that is unfeasible. This paper is not classified in either side and strives to give a realistic picture of this idea. For this purpose, findings from papers published in scientific journals are mainly used. There is also some information from websites, mainly for some technical issues. Partly, the opinions of the authors are present. Specificities of EVs and EPSs that enabled the birth of this idea are explained along with proposed concepts through which the idea can be implemented. Keeping with the vehicle to grid concept, issues about the implementation of the idea are considered. Achievements in the practical realization of the idea are also presented.