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  • Author: Bordei Petru x
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Anatomical Considerations of the Ostium of the Subclavian Artery

Abstract

The subclavian artery’s are two voluminous artery’s, left and right, which have their origin in a different way, the right one originating from the brahiocefalic trunk, and the left one directly from the aortic arch, at a distance that varies according to the origin of the left common carotid arteries.

Our study was made on computed tomography angiography, on which we have had the opportunity to examine the scans from Medimar Imagistic Center, in the County Clinical Hospital “Sf. Andrei” in Constanta, being carried out on a computer tomography GE LightSpeed 16 slice CT. Also, we had available angiography’s executed in the center for diagnosis Pozimed, being carried out on a computer tomography GE LightSpeed VCT64 Slice CT.

The variability of the findings in the anatomical parts of the subclavicular artery’s ostium, both as regards the size of the horizontal and vertical diameters, also their shape and as regards morfological relations with other branches of the aortic arch. The dimensions of the diameters vary according to sex, but it is a general rule that the dimensions are higher in male, the minimum and maximum values may be different in the two sexes.

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The Distance Between the Diafragm and the Origin of the Collateral Branches of the Abdominal Aorta

Abstract

The Abdominal Aorta represents the terminal portion or the fourth portion of the artery, continuing the diaphragmatic portion, stretching from the aortic hiatus (at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra) up to the fourth lumbar vertebra, the level at which ends by bifurcation in the two common iliac artery, left and right.

The survey was carried out on the computed tomography angiography’s executed on a computer tomography GE LightSpeed 16 slice CT in Medimar Imagistic Clinic located in the County Clinical Emergency Hospital “Sf. Andrei” Constanta, on healthy subjects and on the basis of sex.

The distance between the origins of the collateral branches of the aorta are highly variable, causing differences in relation to sex, generally being higher in male, exceptions being due to the fact that these distances are proportional with the morphological type of the individual in question. Frequently, the maximum and minimum values of the distances have not been encountered only in one event. Like other morfometric data, the distances between the collateral arteries of the abdominal aorta firstly depend on the number of cases which it has been worked, which explains the differences between authors who are working on the same grounds and at close intervals of time, but differs on the number of cases which are working.

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The Morphometry of the Lumbar Costiform Process

Abstract

The length of the lumbar costiform process was determined and compared at the right and left side of the body, according to sex, on 32 cases. Differences were found, some were significant, depending on the side of the body. For both sexes, a gradual growth of the general average for the right and left lumbar costiform process was observed only for the first three vertebras, the value at the level of the last two lumbar vertebras being smaller than at the level of the L3 vertebra.

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Considerations on The Origin of The Ophthalmic Artery from The Internal Carotid Artery

Abstract

The study of CT angiographies performed on a CT scanner GE LightSpeed VCT16 Slice CT revealed some morphological features of the ophthalmic artery related to origin, morphometry and the internal carotid arteries in the vicinity of this artery. The diameter of the left internal carotid artery under the origin of the ophthalmic artery was between 4.0-5.8 mm and that of the right ophthalmic artery at the same level was between 4.1-5.3 mm. Under the origin of the ophthalmic artery, the internal carotid arteries were larger in diameter on the leftside in 80% of cases, with differences of 0.1-0.3 mm, and on the right side these differences were between 0.1-0.2 mm, 20% of cases. The diameter of the left internal carotid artery above the origin of the ophthalmic artery was 3.7-5.0 mm, and the origin of the right carotid artery at the same level was 3.8-5.0 mm.

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The Morphometry Extrahepatic Bile Ducts

Abstract

The extrahepatic bile duct morphometry was determined by the analysis of the colangiographies performed at Medimar Imaging Services SRL of the “St. Andrei “in Constanta on a General Electric Brightspeed Select CT scanner 16 slides. For the left liver duct found a caliber of 3.5-6.6 mm, its length ranging from 4.2-24.9 mm, and the right hepatic duct had a caliber ranging from 4.2-7.2 mm, the length being between 3.0-25.0 mm. At the confluence of the two hepatic ducts an angle of 35.0-124.1° was formed. In the common hepatic duct we found a caliber of 3.9-9.7 mm, in length between 20.2-52.9 mm. Cystic duct having a size of 2.4 to 5.5 mm, finding a length ranging from 24.6 to 66.4 mm. The angle formed at the end of the cystic duct in the hepatic duct had a value between 6.2-55.8°, and between the cystic and biliary ducts an angle of between 88.5-170.4° was formed. The coledoc duct had a caliber of 3.1-14.7 mm and a length of 19.8-57.3 mm.

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Aspects of Kidneys Morphometry

Abstract

Our results were obtained by examining subjects without renal pathology, aged 26-83 on a General Electric - Voluson 730 Expert ultrasound. The left kidney length was found between 56.98-122.90 mm, for female being 56.98-110.60 mm, and for male 84.73-122.90 mm. The length of the right kidney was between 55.50-125.0 mm, for female being 55.50-108.40 mm, and for male 62.04-125.0 mm. The width of the left kidney in the renal hillum was found to be between 15.54-41.10 mm, for female being between 15.54-31.0 mm, and for male between 16.19-41.10 mm. The thickness of the left kidney in the renal hillum was found to be between 40.0-75.80 mm, with the female being 44.02-71.02 mm, and the male between 40.0-75.80 mm. The right kidney thickness in the renal hillum was found to be between 41.67-82.36 mm, for female being between 41.67-60.27 mm and for male 43.89-82.36 mm.

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Morphological Features on Myocardial Bridges at the Anterior Interventricular Artery

Abstract

Are described morphological features of myocardial bridges at the anterior interventricular artery obtained from the analysis of 274 cases with 312 myocardial bridges detected by angioCT performed over a period of 3.5 years on a total of 2857 subjects. CT examinations were performed on 1496 females, aged 56-79 years, and 1361 male subjects aged 34-74 years. At the level of the anterior interventricular artery we encountered 231 cases with myocardial bridges (84.31% of the total number of cases), being 267 myocardial bridges (85.58% of the total bridges analyzed). In the case of single myocardial bridges of the anterior interventricular artery, in 65 cases (33.33% of the 195 cases) they were located in the upper third of the artery, 32 cases were female (31.68% of female myocardial bridges) and 33 in male sex (35.11% of male myocardial bridges). In 129 cases (66.67%) were located in the middle third of the artery, 69 cases were female (63.30% female myocardial bridges) and 60 cases in male (64.89% of male myocardial bridges). In one case with three myocardial bridges, the inferior myocardial bridge was located in the lower third of the anterior interventricular artery. The length of the myocardial bridge was between 11.9 and 73.1 mm, for the female gender being 11.9-28.7 mm, and male 9.4-73.1 mm. The thickness of the myocardial bridge was found between 0.9-5.7 mm, for the female gender being 0.9-5.2 mm, and for the male the thickness was 1.7-5.7 mm. The caliber of the tunneling artery was found between 1.2-2.5 mm in female gender, for the male gender 1.3-4 mm.

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Common Femoral Artery Diameters Determined by Doppler Ultrasonography

Abstract

Common femoral arteries diameters (left and right) were studied, on a number of 60 cases (26 women and 34 men) with a General Electric – Voluson 730 Expert ultrasonograph. The diameters of the common femoral arteries, left and right, were measured in three points: proximal, middle and inferior, in 60 cases as it follows: 26 cases on women (43,33%) and 34 cases on men (56,70%). Regarding the proximal third of the right common femoral artery, the diameter range was found between 6,1 and 8,9mm, in women being between 6,2-7,9mm, and in men between 6,1-8,9mm. The diameter of the middle third had values between 5,8-9,7mm, in women ranging from 6,1 to 7,8mm, and in men from 5,8 to 9,7mm. At the level of the inferior third, the femoral artery had a diameter between 6,8-12,7mm, in women ranging from 6,5 to 9,8mm, and in men from 6,3 to 12,7mm. The common left femoral artery, in its proximal third had a diameter with values between 5,7 – 9,9mm, in women from 6,2 to 8,0mm, and in men being between 5,7-9,9mm. In the middle third the values were found between 6,1-9,8mm, in women being from 6,6 to 7,9mm, and in men from 6,1 to 9,8mm. Regarding the inferior third, the diameters had values between 7,0-12,5mm, in women ranging from 7,1 to 10,5mm, and in men, from 6,8 to 12,5mm.

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Comparative Study Between the Papillary Muscles of the Right Ventricle and the Left Ventricle Papillary Muscles

Abstract

We used formalinized heart dissection obtained from forensic laboratory in Constanta, analyzing the papillary muscles and their tendon chordae. We studied at the papillary muscles the number of forms that could be in single or multiple muscular bodies, encountering more than five body muscles in a papillary muscle group. We measured using caliper graduated in millimeters, the height of each papillary muscle body (from the base to its upper end) and its thickness at the base and at its upper extremity. Chordae tendon we examined in terms of their origin and number at the level of each papillary muscle, the dimensions (length and thickness), orientation and how they end at the atrioventricular valves. We noted the presence of „false”chordae tendineae, which were disposed between the papillary muscle and the ventricular wall. The results were compared with data in the literature that I had the opportunity to consult

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Comparison Between the Anterior Ventricular Wall Thickness, Left and Right, and Considerations on Trabecular System of the Two Ventricles

Abstract

In recent decades (late twentieth century), have been reported multiple anatomical variations in relation to the concepts described classic, so what once was described as an anatomical variant in some cases has become predominant, not quite often proposing a revision of international anatomical terminology.

This article is specifically addressed on the morphology of the papillary muscles of the two ventricles, describing the differences between the left and the right anterior ventricular walls.

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