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Open access

Andraz Dovnik, Bojana Crnobrnja, Branka Zegura, Iztok Takac and Maja Pakiz



The aim of the study was to compare the frequency of positive peritoneal washings in endometrial cancer patients after either hysteroscopy (HSC) or dilatation and curettage (D&C).

Patients and methods

We performed a retrospective analysis of 227 patients who underwent either HSC (N = 144) or D&C (N = 83) and were diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma at the University Medical Centre Maribor between January 2008 and December 2014. The incidence of positive peritoneal cytology was evaluated in each group.


There was no overall difference in the incidence of positive peritoneal washings after HSC or D&C (HSC = 13.2%; D&C = 12.0%; p = 0.803). However, a detailed analysis of stage I disease revealed significantly higher rates of positive peritoneal washings in the HSC group (HSC = 12.8%; D&C = 3.4%; p = 0.046). Among these patients, there was no difference between both groups considering histologic type (chi-square = 0.059; p = 0.807), tumour differentiation (chi-square = 3.709; p = 0.156), the time between diagnosis and operation (t = 0.930; p = 0.357), and myometrial invasion (chi-square = 5.073; p = 0.079).


Although the diagnostic procedure did not influence the overall incidence of positive peritoneal washings, HSC was associated with a significantly higher rate of positive peritoneal cytology in stage I endometrial carcinoma compared to D&C.

Open access

Metka Filipič, Bojana Žegura, Bojan Sedmak, Irena Horvat-Žnidaršic, Aleksandra Milutinovič and Dušan Šuput

Subchronic exposure of rats to sublethal dose of microcystin-YR induces DNA damage in multiple organs

Background. Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptides that are considered to be liver specific toxins. They are potent tumour promoters and recent studies indicate that they are also genotoxic. In this study we measured DNA damage in lymphocytes, liver, kidney (cortex and medulla), lung, spleen and brain cells of male Fisher F344 rats that were exposed to sublethal dose (every second day 10 μg/kg b.w.; i.p) of micro-cystin-YR (MCYR) for one month.

Methods. At the end of exposure the animals were sacrificed, the lymphocytes were isolated from blood taken from jugular vein, liver cells were obtained by perfusion with collagenase A and the cells from other organs were isolated by incubating small tissue pieces with collagenase A. The DNA damage in isolated cells was measured with the single cells gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also called the comet assay.

Results. A significant increase of the % tail DNA in MCYR-exposed animals compared to the nonexposed control ones was observed in brain (2.5 fold), liver (2.1 fold), kidney medulla (1.9 fold), kidney cortex (1.8 fold) and lung (1.7 fold) cells, while the DNA from lymphocytes and spleen cells was not affected.

Conclusion. This study demonstrated that subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of MCs can induce systemic genotoxicity in mammals, and it affects not only the liver but also other vital organs.