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Open access

T. Lendze, A. Mielewczyk-Gryń, K. Gdula-Kasica, B. Kusz and M. Gazda

INFLUENCE OF PORE FORMERS ON ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CaTi0.9Fe0.1O3-δ PEROVSKITE-TYPE CERAMICS

Porous CaTi0.9Fe0.1O3-δ (CTF) perovskites were synthesized by the standard solid state method at different sintering temperatures with carbon black (CB), corn starch (CS) and potato starch (PS) as pore-forming agents. The ceramic samples of porosity between 9% and 42% with 5 - 40 μm pore sizes, were obtained by a 6 h sintering at either 1130° C or 1200° C of precursor powder prepared at 1470° C. X-ray diffraction analysis proved the existence of orthorhombic single-phase perovskites crystalline structure. Electrical conductivity at 800° C was between 1.42×10-2 S cm-1 and 1.86×10-3 Scm-1. The conductivity markedly depended on the sample porosity. It should be noted that 30% of porosity, resulted in reduction of conductivity by less than one order of magnitude. Activation energy of conductivity varied between 0.41 and 0.56 eV. Cornstarch has been chosen as the most suitable pore-forming agent for obtaining the cathode of good properties. The best amount of the cornstarch has been proposed as between 5 and 10%.

Open access

J. Karczewski, T. Miruszewski, B. Bochentyn and B. Kusz

Abstract

Impedance spectroscopy measurements in various gas atmospheres were carried out in order to explain the doubts about the type of carriers and the mechanism of electrical conductivity in Bi-Si-O and Pb-Si-O glasses. In bismuth silicate glass, a typical ionic conductivity with oxygen ions as charge carriers was observed. The level of electrical conductivity of the glass at 400 °C was 5 × 10-8 S·cm-1, with the activation energy of 1.3 eV and was independent of measuring atmosphere. In the case of lead silicate glasses, the conductivity changed with measuring atmosphere. Two types of charge carriers: oxygen ions and proton ions were postulated. Proton conductivity measured in wet argon at temperature 400 °C was estimated at the level of 4 × 10-8 S·cm-1 while the oxygen ions conductivity in such conditions was 78 × 10-8 S·cm-1. We suggest that both types of charge carriers are transported along the same conduction paths using oxygen defects in the glass structure.

Open access

T. Miruszewski, B. Trawiński, M. Gałka, J. Morzy, B. Bochentyn, J. Karczewski, P. Gdaniec, M. Gazda and B. Kusz

Abstract

In order to find a relationship between structural and electrical properties, niobium and yttrium doped SrTiO3 ceramics were prepared via solid-state reaction. The samples were sintered in hydrogen and air conditions. The samples were also fabricated with a pore-former to obtain highly porous specimens. The electrical properties of Nb-doped SrTiO3 samples and yttrium and niobium co-doped SrTiO3 were compared. The comparable electrical properties were observed and discussed according to previous literature reports. It was noticed that the synthesis in a reducing hydrogen atmosphere can increase the solubility of dopants. Moreover, the samples sintered in air presented lower conductivity level and worse structural properties than the samples sintered in hydrogen. The explanation of obtained results was also suggested and discussed.

Open access

M. Adamczyk, J. Kusz, W. Hofmeister, M. Zubko, L. Kozielski, M. Pilch, D. Bochenek and B. Wodecka-Duś

Abstract

The subject of the paper is lead free bismuth layer structure oxides (1-x)Bi3TiNbO9-xBaBi2Nb2O9 (x=0; 1; 2; 3 mol). The influence of Bi3TiNbO9/BaBi2Nb2O9 ratio on dielectric and structural properties was studied in a wide range of temperatures. Change in the ratio causes a decrease in the maximum value of dielectric permittivity and shifts the temperature of ε’max to low values, leading to linear decreasing of average grain size and linear increasing of ceramics density. These results indicate an augment of the packing degree and the participation of pores are significantly decreased with the increase of BaBi2Nb2O9 compound intake. Moreover, for 0.7Bi3TiNbO9-0.3BaBi2Nb2O9 ceramics the dielectric phase transition is broadened and the properties characteristic for the ferroelectric relaxor appear.