The article presents the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the chemical and physical properties of surface water and groundwater in the area of the city of Inowrocław. It has been shown that the properties of the waters were most strongly affected by the specific geological structure (the city is located within the Zechstein salt dome) as well as the long-term influence of a salt mine and soda plant. The composition of most analysed samples was dominated by Ca2+, Na+ and Cl− ions. In places of heavy industrial activity, some water parameters were several time higher than permissible limit values according to Polish standards. It is concluded that, due to the threat to the city’s drinking groundwater resources and fertile soils, the surface water and groundwater in the area in question require permanent monitoring.