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Open access

Marzena Malara, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak and Anna Kurczyńska

Concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, copper, zinc and iron in plasma of young subjects differing in their engagement in motor activities

Study aim: To assess possible effects of gender and of the level of motor activity on the deficiencies of selected vitamins and minerals in young subjects.

Material and methods: Four groups of physical education (PE) students (n = 15 each) were studied: sedentary men (SM) and women (SF), and physically active men (AM) and women (AF) engaged in endurance sports, all aged 18 - 24 years, were studied. Somatic measurements included body height and mass, and body fat content (by Durnin's method, from 4 skinfolds), the biochemical ones included concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, copper, zinc and iron in plasma.

Results: Men had significantly higher retinol (p<0.05) and iron (p<0.01) levels than women. The AM and SF groups had significantly (p<0.05 - 0.01) higher plasma levels of copper and zinc than Group SM. Group AF had lower zinc levels than Groups AM and SF, that latter group having lower α-tocopherol compared with Group SM.

Conclusions: Inasmuch the observed differences could be due to the respective intakes, the effect of motor activity and the associated increased elimination of minerals could not be ruled out.

Open access

Anna Ogonowska, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak, Andrzej Kosmol and Wilhelm Gromisz

Anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers

Study aim: To assess the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers by applying two exercise tests.

Material and methods: Male and female swimmers (n = 9 and 6, respectively), aged 19 - 23 years and having training experience of over 10 years, were subjected to two tests: 30-s Wingate for upper extremities and semitethered swimming test. The following variables were determined: body fat content (from 4 skinfolds), maximum power output, heart rate (HR) and lactate (LA) concentration in blood.

Results: Relative power outputs in the Wingate test and swimming force in semi-tethered swimming test (maximum and mean) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in male than in the female swimmers. Maximum LA concentrations were higher in male than in female swimmers, but maximum LA values related to relative power output were in both genders alike. Maximum force produced in the semi-tethered swimming test was strongly (r = 0.765; p<0.001) correlated with maximum relative power output in the Wingate test.

Conclusions: Both tests may be interchangeably applied to determine the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles in swimmers.