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Open access

Marzena Malara, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak and Anna Kurczyńska

Concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, copper, zinc and iron in plasma of young subjects differing in their engagement in motor activities

Study aim: To assess possible effects of gender and of the level of motor activity on the deficiencies of selected vitamins and minerals in young subjects.

Material and methods: Four groups of physical education (PE) students (n = 15 each) were studied: sedentary men (SM) and women (SF), and physically active men (AM) and women (AF) engaged in endurance sports, all aged 18 - 24 years, were studied. Somatic measurements included body height and mass, and body fat content (by Durnin's method, from 4 skinfolds), the biochemical ones included concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, copper, zinc and iron in plasma.

Results: Men had significantly higher retinol (p<0.05) and iron (p<0.01) levels than women. The AM and SF groups had significantly (p<0.05 - 0.01) higher plasma levels of copper and zinc than Group SM. Group AF had lower zinc levels than Groups AM and SF, that latter group having lower α-tocopherol compared with Group SM.

Conclusions: Inasmuch the observed differences could be due to the respective intakes, the effect of motor activity and the associated increased elimination of minerals could not be ruled out.

Open access

Anna Ogonowska, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak, Andrzej Kosmol and Wilhelm Gromisz

Anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers

Study aim: To assess the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers by applying two exercise tests.

Material and methods: Male and female swimmers (n = 9 and 6, respectively), aged 19 - 23 years and having training experience of over 10 years, were subjected to two tests: 30-s Wingate for upper extremities and semitethered swimming test. The following variables were determined: body fat content (from 4 skinfolds), maximum power output, heart rate (HR) and lactate (LA) concentration in blood.

Results: Relative power outputs in the Wingate test and swimming force in semi-tethered swimming test (maximum and mean) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in male than in the female swimmers. Maximum LA concentrations were higher in male than in female swimmers, but maximum LA values related to relative power output were in both genders alike. Maximum force produced in the semi-tethered swimming test was strongly (r = 0.765; p<0.001) correlated with maximum relative power output in the Wingate test.

Conclusions: Both tests may be interchangeably applied to determine the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles in swimmers.

Open access

Anna Biernasiuk, Michal Wozniak and Anna Bogucka-Kocka


An analysis of the fractions of free acids and phenolic acids liberated by way of hydrolysis in the rhizomes and herbaceous tissues of Sanguisorba officinalis L. was conducted through utilizing the 2D-TLC method. Fifteen phenolic acids were identified. Our work showed that ellagic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were common in all tested fractions, and gallic and protocatechuic acids were dominant in fractions obtained from the rhizomes, while caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were abundant in the herbaceous tissues. However, α and β - resorcylic acids were detected only in rhizome phenolic acid fractions liberated from their conjunction with sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid was present only in a free form in the herbaceous tissues, while p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was liberated from conjunction from a herbaceous extract.

Open access

Marek Winiarski, Maciej Matłok, Zbigniew Biesiada, Leszek Bolt, Magdalena Woźniak and Anna Merak

Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Acute Surgical Diseases

The aim of the study was to analyse patients in whom upper gastroinentestinal bleeding appeared during hospitalization in the surgical clinic.

Material and methods. The study group consisted on 61 patients. 35 were women and 26 were men. The mean age of women was 76 and men 64.8 years. The mean age of the whole group was 72.3 years. 30 patients (49%) were hospitalized in general surgery ward, 16 (26%) in trauma unit and 15 patients (25%) in intensive care unit.

Results. The reasons of hospitalisation in general surgery ward were: acute cholecystitis, acute pancrtatitis, peritonitis, lower extremity ischemia with foot necrosis, large bowel cancer and cancer of the gall-bladder. Patients were admitted to trauma unit because of hip and pelvic fractures. Patients were hospitalized in intensive care unit because of polytrauma, diffuse peritonitis, isolated head trauma and necrotising pancreatitis. The main source of bleeding were duodenal and gastric ulcers. It appeared in 28 (45.9%) and 18 (29.5%) patients respectively. The other reasons of bleeding were: erosive gastritis (9 patients) and Mallory-Weiss syndrome (6 patients). Bleeding recurrence was found in 21 patients (34.4%). This group of patients was characterised by high mortality rate 43%. The highest was among patients in intensive care unit. It reached 60%.

Conclusions. Based on the performed analysis we come to the following conclusions: 1. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is serious complication during hospitalisation in surgical clinic; 2. Usually it affects older patients; 3. This complication is associated with high rate of rebleeding and high mortality rate.