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Open access

Mariola Galbas, Kamila Borys, Anna Woźniak and Marek Selwet

Impact of Globulins Derived from Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean on Swine Lymphocyte Proliferation in in vitro Cultures

The majority of the global feed market is dominated by the Roundup Ready 40-3-2 transgenic soybean varieties developed and marketed by Monsanto Company, which are characterized by tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient of the Roundup herbicide. It should be remembered, however, that soybean is one of the major allergens which may affect animal health. The aim of the study was to compare allergenic properties of globulins derived from genetically modified (GM) soybean imported from the USA and conventional soybean developed in Poland. Analyses were performed by measuring porcine lymphocyte proliferation in in vitro cultures. It turned out that both genetically modified and conventional soybean proteins caused immune response at the level of negative control. A slight increase in relation to the negative control was observed in the case of 7S and 11S fractions derived from the GM meal and 7S fraction isolated from Nawiko meal.

Open access

Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Marta Zalewska-Korona, Ewa Jabłońska-Ryś, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak and Anna Oniszczuk


The paper discusses the influence of the addition of freeze-dried tomatoes on the chemical composition and selected physical properties of extruded corn snacks. Corn grits were replaced with dried tomatoes in the amount from 5 to 30% of corn mass. The total lycopene and phenolic content, the scavenging ability and the ferric reducing antioxidant power were determined along with the content of neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric acids and rutin. Also evaluated were selected physical properties, colour and the sensory profile of corn snacks enriched with tomatoes. A greater tomato addition increased the volume of bioactive compounds, especially the total phenolic content. Snacks enriched with tomato exhibited a lower expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility indices, lightness and sensory characteristics but higher density, hardness and redness than corn snacks. Powdered tomato seems to be a functional additive with the high content of biologically-active compounds, and the enriched snacks displayed good physical properties if the tomato level did not exceed 20%. A higher amount of the additive significantly lowered the expansion as well as increased the hardness of snacks. Still, the corn products with 25 and 30% of powdered tomato were more valuable due to their much higher level of bioactive components compared with the regular corn snacks.

Open access

Magdalena Hryhorowicz, Joanna Zeyland, Agnieszka Nowak-Terpiłowska, Jacek Jura, Wojciech Juzwa, Ryszard Słomski, Jan Bocianowski, Zdzisław Smorąg, Anna Woźniak and Daniel Lipiński


The use of pigs as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation can overcome the growing shortage of human donors. Human NK cells play an important role in the cell-mediated rejection of pig-to-human xenografts. In this paper we report the generation and extensive characterization of three generations of transgenic pigs with HLA-E gene encoding the antigen which can inhibit the human NK cell-mediated response. The gene construct pHLAE-GFPBsd containing the human gene encoding the human leukocyte antigen under the promoter of the EF-1α elongation factor ensuring systemic expression was introduced by microinjection into a pronucleus of the fertilized porcine oocyte. PCR analysis revealed and FISH analysis confirmed that the pHLAE-GFPBsd gene construct was present in the genome of the founder female pig. As a result of inter-breeding, an additional 7 transgenic animals were obtained (one individual from F1 generation and six individuals from F2 generation). The transgene expression was shown by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Real Time PCR analysis estimated the approximate number of transgene copies at 16–34. Karyotype analysis did not show any changes in the structure or the number of chromosomes. The expression level of the transgene was stable in the next generation of genetically modified pigs. An NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay showed the increased viability of the transgenic cells in comparison with the wild-type, which confirmed the protective influence of HLA-E expression.