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Open access

Roman Paduch and Anna Woźniak


Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a cell surface glycoprotein, has been found to be associated with immunopathological processes within the eye. Expression of ICAM-1 is upregulated during inflammatory diseases and its soluble form (sICAM-1) was shown to be elevated in patients with ocular inflammatory and infectious disorders.

The purpose of the present study was to analyse sICAM-1 level after human corneal cells (10.014 pRSV-T cell line) in vitro with ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane extracts of three herbs (Lamium album , Euphrasia officinalis and Aloe vera ). Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts altered sICAM-1 level depending on herb, solvent and extract concentration applied. Heptane extract of each plant caused only concentration-dependent decrease of sICAM-1 level when added to the corneal cell culture.

Concluding, the analysed plant extracts, after further tests, could be considered as supplementary compounds of eye drops, in order to attain reduction of inflammatory responses during ocular diseases.

Open access

Marzena Malara, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak and Anna Kurczyńska

Concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, copper, zinc and iron in plasma of young subjects differing in their engagement in motor activities

Study aim: To assess possible effects of gender and of the level of motor activity on the deficiencies of selected vitamins and minerals in young subjects.

Material and methods: Four groups of physical education (PE) students (n = 15 each) were studied: sedentary men (SM) and women (SF), and physically active men (AM) and women (AF) engaged in endurance sports, all aged 18 - 24 years, were studied. Somatic measurements included body height and mass, and body fat content (by Durnin's method, from 4 skinfolds), the biochemical ones included concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, copper, zinc and iron in plasma.

Results: Men had significantly higher retinol (p<0.05) and iron (p<0.01) levels than women. The AM and SF groups had significantly (p<0.05 - 0.01) higher plasma levels of copper and zinc than Group SM. Group AF had lower zinc levels than Groups AM and SF, that latter group having lower α-tocopherol compared with Group SM.

Conclusions: Inasmuch the observed differences could be due to the respective intakes, the effect of motor activity and the associated increased elimination of minerals could not be ruled out.

Open access

Mariola Galbas, Kamila Borys, Anna Woźniak and Marek Selwet

Impact of Globulins Derived from Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean on Swine Lymphocyte Proliferation in in vitro Cultures

The majority of the global feed market is dominated by the Roundup Ready 40-3-2 transgenic soybean varieties developed and marketed by Monsanto Company, which are characterized by tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient of the Roundup herbicide. It should be remembered, however, that soybean is one of the major allergens which may affect animal health. The aim of the study was to compare allergenic properties of globulins derived from genetically modified (GM) soybean imported from the USA and conventional soybean developed in Poland. Analyses were performed by measuring porcine lymphocyte proliferation in in vitro cultures. It turned out that both genetically modified and conventional soybean proteins caused immune response at the level of negative control. A slight increase in relation to the negative control was observed in the case of 7S and 11S fractions derived from the GM meal and 7S fraction isolated from Nawiko meal.

Open access

Anna Ogonowska, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak, Andrzej Kosmol and Wilhelm Gromisz

Anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers

Study aim: To assess the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers by applying two exercise tests.

Material and methods: Male and female swimmers (n = 9 and 6, respectively), aged 19 - 23 years and having training experience of over 10 years, were subjected to two tests: 30-s Wingate for upper extremities and semitethered swimming test. The following variables were determined: body fat content (from 4 skinfolds), maximum power output, heart rate (HR) and lactate (LA) concentration in blood.

Results: Relative power outputs in the Wingate test and swimming force in semi-tethered swimming test (maximum and mean) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in male than in the female swimmers. Maximum LA concentrations were higher in male than in female swimmers, but maximum LA values related to relative power output were in both genders alike. Maximum force produced in the semi-tethered swimming test was strongly (r = 0.765; p<0.001) correlated with maximum relative power output in the Wingate test.

Conclusions: Both tests may be interchangeably applied to determine the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles in swimmers.

Open access

Anna Biernasiuk, Michal Wozniak and Anna Bogucka-Kocka


An analysis of the fractions of free acids and phenolic acids liberated by way of hydrolysis in the rhizomes and herbaceous tissues of Sanguisorba officinalis L. was conducted through utilizing the 2D-TLC method. Fifteen phenolic acids were identified. Our work showed that ellagic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were common in all tested fractions, and gallic and protocatechuic acids were dominant in fractions obtained from the rhizomes, while caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were abundant in the herbaceous tissues. However, α and β - resorcylic acids were detected only in rhizome phenolic acid fractions liberated from their conjunction with sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid was present only in a free form in the herbaceous tissues, while p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was liberated from conjunction from a herbaceous extract.

Open access

Marek Winiarski, Maciej Matłok, Zbigniew Biesiada, Leszek Bolt, Magdalena Woźniak and Anna Merak

Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Acute Surgical Diseases

The aim of the study was to analyse patients in whom upper gastroinentestinal bleeding appeared during hospitalization in the surgical clinic.

Material and methods. The study group consisted on 61 patients. 35 were women and 26 were men. The mean age of women was 76 and men 64.8 years. The mean age of the whole group was 72.3 years. 30 patients (49%) were hospitalized in general surgery ward, 16 (26%) in trauma unit and 15 patients (25%) in intensive care unit.

Results. The reasons of hospitalisation in general surgery ward were: acute cholecystitis, acute pancrtatitis, peritonitis, lower extremity ischemia with foot necrosis, large bowel cancer and cancer of the gall-bladder. Patients were admitted to trauma unit because of hip and pelvic fractures. Patients were hospitalized in intensive care unit because of polytrauma, diffuse peritonitis, isolated head trauma and necrotising pancreatitis. The main source of bleeding were duodenal and gastric ulcers. It appeared in 28 (45.9%) and 18 (29.5%) patients respectively. The other reasons of bleeding were: erosive gastritis (9 patients) and Mallory-Weiss syndrome (6 patients). Bleeding recurrence was found in 21 patients (34.4%). This group of patients was characterised by high mortality rate 43%. The highest was among patients in intensive care unit. It reached 60%.

Conclusions. Based on the performed analysis we come to the following conclusions: 1. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is serious complication during hospitalisation in surgical clinic; 2. Usually it affects older patients; 3. This complication is associated with high rate of rebleeding and high mortality rate.

Open access

Paweł Kalinowski, Łukasz Woźniak, Anna Strzelczyk, Piotr Jasinski and Grzegorz Jasinski


Electrocatalytic gas sensors belong to the family of electrochemical solid state sensors. Their responses are acquired in the form of I-V plots as a result of application of cyclic voltammetry technique. In order to obtain information about the type of measured gas the multivariate data analysis and pattern classification techniques can be employed. However, there is a lack of information in literature about application of such techniques in case of standalone chemical sensors which are able to recognize more than one volatile compound. In this article we present the results of application of these techniques to the determination from a single electrocatalytic gas sensor of single concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Two types of classifiers were evaluated, i.e. linear Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and nonlinear Support Vector Machine (SVM). The efficiency of using PLS-DA and SVM methods are shown on both the raw voltammetric sensor responses and pre-processed responses using normalization and auto-scaling

Open access

Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Marta Zalewska-Korona, Ewa Jabłońska-Ryś, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak and Anna Oniszczuk


The paper discusses the influence of the addition of freeze-dried tomatoes on the chemical composition and selected physical properties of extruded corn snacks. Corn grits were replaced with dried tomatoes in the amount from 5 to 30% of corn mass. The total lycopene and phenolic content, the scavenging ability and the ferric reducing antioxidant power were determined along with the content of neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric acids and rutin. Also evaluated were selected physical properties, colour and the sensory profile of corn snacks enriched with tomatoes. A greater tomato addition increased the volume of bioactive compounds, especially the total phenolic content. Snacks enriched with tomato exhibited a lower expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility indices, lightness and sensory characteristics but higher density, hardness and redness than corn snacks. Powdered tomato seems to be a functional additive with the high content of biologically-active compounds, and the enriched snacks displayed good physical properties if the tomato level did not exceed 20%. A higher amount of the additive significantly lowered the expansion as well as increased the hardness of snacks. Still, the corn products with 25 and 30% of powdered tomato were more valuable due to their much higher level of bioactive components compared with the regular corn snacks.

Open access

Agata Domańska, Anna Boczkowska, Marta Izydorzak-Woźniak, Zbigniew Jaegermann and Małgorzata Grądzka-Dahlke


The research aimed at the selection of polyurethanes synthesized from poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol (PTMEG), as well as from two different isocyanates 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexyl)isocyanate (HMDI) and 4.4′-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) in order to obtain polyurethane with increased resistance to abrasive wear and degradation for bio-medical application. Polyurethanes were fabricated from crystalline prepolymers extended by water. The paper presents preliminary results on polyurethane surface wettability, friction coefficient for different couples of the co-working materials such as polyurethane-polyurethane, polyurethane-titanium alloy, polyurethane-alumina, in comparison to commonly used polyethylene-titanium alloy. Shear strength of polyurethane-alumina joint, as well as viscosity of prepolymers were also measured. The values of friction coefficient were compared to literature data on commercially available polyurethane with the trade name Pellethane. Polyurethanes obtained are characterized by low abrasive wear and low friction coefficient in couple with the titanium alloy, what makes them attractive as possible components of ceramic-polymer endoprosthesis joints.

Open access

Magdalena Hryhorowicz, Joanna Zeyland, Agnieszka Nowak-Terpiłowska, Jacek Jura, Wojciech Juzwa, Ryszard Słomski, Jan Bocianowski, Zdzisław Smorąg, Anna Woźniak and Daniel Lipiński


The use of pigs as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation can overcome the growing shortage of human donors. Human NK cells play an important role in the cell-mediated rejection of pig-to-human xenografts. In this paper we report the generation and extensive characterization of three generations of transgenic pigs with HLA-E gene encoding the antigen which can inhibit the human NK cell-mediated response. The gene construct pHLAE-GFPBsd containing the human gene encoding the human leukocyte antigen under the promoter of the EF-1α elongation factor ensuring systemic expression was introduced by microinjection into a pronucleus of the fertilized porcine oocyte. PCR analysis revealed and FISH analysis confirmed that the pHLAE-GFPBsd gene construct was present in the genome of the founder female pig. As a result of inter-breeding, an additional 7 transgenic animals were obtained (one individual from F1 generation and six individuals from F2 generation). The transgene expression was shown by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Real Time PCR analysis estimated the approximate number of transgene copies at 16–34. Karyotype analysis did not show any changes in the structure or the number of chromosomes. The expression level of the transgene was stable in the next generation of genetically modified pigs. An NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay showed the increased viability of the transgenic cells in comparison with the wild-type, which confirmed the protective influence of HLA-E expression.