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Anand Sharma

Abstract

Using Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) dataset for 11 two-digit manufacturing industries and 20 states, this paper tests the relationship between dynamic agglomeration externalities and regional manufacturing growth for India. Three types of dynamic externalities have been proposed in the literature for explaining this relationship – Marshall-Arrow-Romer (MAR) specialization externalities, Jacobs’s diversity externalities, and Porter’s competition externalities. This paper examines the effect of these dynamic externalities on regional manufacturing employment and total factor productivity (TFP) growth for selected Indian industries between 2001-02 and 2011-12. The panel data model results show that dynamic externalities are important in influencing employment growth but they do not seem to have an impact on the growth of manufacturing productivity. Further, the results show that specialization externalities positively affect the employment growth of capital-intensive industries whereas diversity externalities favourably affect the employment growth in labour-intensive industries. Our results suggest that the importance of dynamic externalities should not be examined by pooling all industries. The results also highlight the importance of infrastructural investments for boosting the growth of manufacturing employment and productivity.

Open access

Anand Sharma, Arti Sharma and Yashbir Dewan

Abstract

Introduction: Extradural hematomas (EDHs) accounts for approximately 2% of patients following head trauma and 5-15% of patients with fatal head injuries. When indicated, the standard surgical management consists of evacuation of the hematoma via craniotomy. Intraoperative development of acute extradural hematoma (AEDH) on the contralateral side following evacuation of acute extradural hematoma is uncommon and very few cases have been reported.

Case report: We report a case of 28 year-old-male who suffered from a severe head injury following assault and diagnosed as acute extradural hematoma over right fronto-parietal region with midline shift towards left. Patient underwent emergency craniotomy with acute EDH evacuation. Following evacuation of acute EDH the duramater was tense which was unusual finding. With anticipation of underling acute SDH small durotomy was done, but there were no sub dural hematoma. Bone flap were repositioned and closure were done. Patient was shifted for NCCT head from OT, which revealed 2.7cm acute EDH over left frantoparietal region. Patient was again shifted back to OT and left frontoparietal craniotomy with evacuation of hematoma was done. Postoperative NCCT head was satisfactory. However, the patient remained severely disabled.

Conclusion: Formation of contralateral EDH after AEDH surgery is a rare but potentially dangerous complication. A high degree of suspicion should be kept for contralateral extradural hematoma if during surgery there is tense duramater following AEDH evacuation. We would advise urgent NCCT head especially if a fracture is demonstrated on the preoperative CT scan on contralateral side. This would save some invaluable time, which may help in changing the outcome in some of the patients.

Open access

A. Sharma and S.K. Lenka

Abstract

In the present scenario internet usage and the online banking sectors are experiencing spectacular growth. The Internet is the fastest growing banking channel today, both in the fields of corporate and retail banking. Banks prefer their customers to use the online banking facility as it reduces their cost, primarily through labour costs. The online banking system addresses several emerging trends: customers’ demand for anytime, anywhere service, product time-to-market imperatives and increasingly complex back-office integration challenges. Online fraud has become major source of revenue for criminals all over the globe. The challenges that oppose online banking are the concerns of security and privacy of information. This has made detecting and preventing these activities a top priority for every major bank. The use of single-factor authentication, such as a user name and the password, has been inadequate for guarding against account fraud and identity theft, in sensitive online banking systems. In this paper we are going to analyze the QKD multifactor authentication in online banking systems

Open access

Anand Sharma, Achal Sharma and R.S. Mittal

Abstract

A composite type of SCM is very rare and only a few cases have been reported until today. The frequency of composite- type SCM is lower than 1% in the literature. In this report, we presented an unusual case of long segment composite type split cord malformation with double level bony spur with multiple associated bony anomalies.

Open access

Anand Sharma, Akhilesh Jain, Achal Sharma, R.S. Mittal and I.D. Gupta

Abstract

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability. Assessment and treatment of TBI typically focus on physical and cognitive impairments, yet psychological impairments represent significant causes of disability. Depression may be the most common and disabling psychiatric condition in individuals with TBI.

Objective: This cross-sectional study was design to investigate prevalence and risk factors of depression in Traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Material and method: The Group studied consists of 204 patients of mild and moderate TBI between 14-days to one-year post injury. Demographic characteristics of the participants were assessed on a self-designed semi structured performa. Interviews focused on assessment of severity of TBI, depression and quality of life (Qol) using GCS, PHQ-9 and WHOBREF-QOL respectively.

Results: Total 204 patients were included. 42.15% participants were found to have depression. None of the demographic variables were associated with depression except female sex, severity and time since injury. Moderate TBI patient (55.80%) had significantly higher occurrence of depression than the mild cases (44.2%). Patients with lesser duration (time since injury) of TBI had high incidence (50.2%) of depression compare to longer duration of TBI. Depressed patients also had poor Qol than those without depression in all domains except physical health domain. Neuroanatomical localization was also correlated with depression. Cerebral contusions were the most common (44.24%) lesions associated with depression.

Conclusion: Depression is commonly associated, yet under diagnosed clinical entities in head injury and have tremendous impact in overall outcome measures. Every patient of head injury warrants psychiatric evaluation and concomitant treatment if required to ensure the attainment of not only neuroanatomical intact but overall productive and qualitative life vindicating the holistic and multidisciplinary treatment approach.

Open access

Ahmed Ansari, Akhilesh Jain, R.S. Mittal, Achal Sharma, Anand Sharma and I. D. Gupta

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability (1, 2). Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, are very common following traumatic brain injury and have been reported in frequencies from 40% (3) to as high as 84% (4). Sleep disruption can be related to the TBI itself but may also be secondary to neuropsychiatric (e.g., depression) or neuromuscular (e.g., pain) conditions associated with TBI or to the pharmacological management of the injury and its consequences. Post-TBI insomnia has been associated with numerous negative outcomes including daytime fatigue, tiredness, difficulty functioning: impaired performance at work, memory problems, mood problems, greater functional disability, reduced participation in activities of daily living, less social and recreational activity, less employment potential, increased caregiver burden, greater sexual dysfunction, and also lower ratings of health, poor subjective wellbeing. These negative consequences can hamper the person’s reintegration into the community, adjustment after injury, and overall QOL. (5) The connection between depression and insomnia has not been investigated within the post TBI population to a great extent. For the general population, clinically significant insomnia is often associated with the presence of an emotional disorder (6). Fichtenberg et al. (2002) (7), in his study established that the strongest relationship with the diagnosis of insomnia belonged to depression. Given the high prevalence of depression during the first 2 years following TBI (8), a link between depression and insomnia among TBI patients makes innate sense. The present study aims at assessing role of sertralline in post TBI insomnia associated with depression.

Open access

Asheesh Kumar Gupta, Avdhesh Shukla, Anand Sharma and S.N. Iyengar

Abstract

The prime objective in the surgical treatment of Chiari malformation (CM) and/or syringomyelia (SM) is based on the restoration of the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics at the craniovertebral junction through the creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. In this case a patient came to our hospital with type 1 chiary malformation having large syrinx which underwent posterior fossa decompression by midline sub occipital craniectomy with subpial cerebellar tonsillar resection which after one year of follow up we have found significant resolution of syrinx radiologically.

Open access

Asheesh Kumar Gupta, S.N. Iyengar and Anand Sharma

Abstract

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the scalp is a rare lesion whose natural history remains to be elucidated. Clinical symptoms, usually, range from an asymptomatic lesion, local discomfort, headaches to necrosis and massive hemorrhage. Selective angiography remains the cornerstone for investigation. Complete surgical excision, embolization or an approach combining the modalities is curative. It can also cause massive hemorrhages due to dryness of the overlying skin and injuries. In this report we describe the clinical and radiological features of a patient with a scalp arteriovenous malformation.

Open access

Asheesh Kumar Gupta, Anand Sharma, Avdhesh Shukla and S.N. Iyengar

Abstract

Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are uncommon causes of spinal cord compression in the paediatric population that are thought to arise from congenital defects in the duramater. In most literatures it is describe that such cysts communicating with the intrathecal subarachnoid space through a small defect in the dura. In this case report we describe a case of a child who presented with spinal cord compression caused by a large spinal extradural arachnoid cyst that did not communicate with the intradural subarachnoid space. An 9 year-old girl presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness, myelopathy, and severe gait ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated a large extradural arachnoid cyst extending from T4 to T9. The patient underwent a thoracic laminectomy for en bloc resection of the spinal extradural arachnoid cyst. Intra-operatively, the dura was intact and there was no evidence of communication into the intradural subarachnoid space. Postoperatively, the patient’s motor strength and ambulation improved immediately, and no subsequent cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred.

Open access

Anand Sharma, Avdesh Shukla and S.N. Iyengar

Abstract

Colonic perforation following ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a rare complication. The common treatment is to remove the perforating catheter and replace with new one. In this case report we reported a rare case of colonic perforation following VP shunt and its anal migration. We have discussed its pathogenesis, management strategy and review of literature.