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  • Author: Ana Štambuk x
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Legionella Species in Year-Round vs. Seasonal Accommodation Water Supply Systems

Legionella Species in Year-Round vs. Seasonal Accommodation Water Supply Systems

The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of hot water between eleven hotels in the Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia that are open year round and 10 summer season hotels and retirement homes with irregular use of water. We took 122 samples between May and December 2009. Water temperature and free residual chlorine were measured in situ. Physical and chemical analysis included pH, electrical conductivity, and concentrations of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium that were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while the Legionella species were determined using a cultivation method on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar.

Differences in metal concentrations between the seasonal and year-round accommodation facilities were negligible, save for zinc that was higher in year-round (0.341 mg L-1) than in seasonal facilities (0.130 mg L-1).

Samples from all year-round and six summer season hotels were negative to the Legionella species, but four seasonal facilities turned up with positive samples to Legionella pneumophila.

Our study has demonstrated that water quality differs between year-round and seasonal accommodation facilities. These findings suggest that metal plumbing components and associated corrosion products are important factors in the survival and growth of Legionella species in water distribution systems.

Open access
Acute ischemic stroke mimicking subarachnoid hemorrhage after coronary angioplasty


Use of non-ionic contrast media (CM) in coronary arteriography has been reported to cause transient cortical blindness, confusion, amnesia and very rare focal deficits. We report a 69-year old patient with stable angina pectoris who underwent coronary angioplasty with stent placement due to in-stent thrombosis of the right coronary artery and developed stroke symptoms with radiological suspicion of subarachnoid hemorrhage. No vascular malformations were detected on CT cerebral angiography. Dual antiplatelet treatment was continued. Complete neurological recovery was observed within 48 hours post angiography. As observed with repeated CT scans, sulcal hyperdensities mostly faded after 24 hours and totally disappeared within 7 days when she was discharged home. Our case shows transient neurological symptoms and rapid disappearing of sulcal hyperdensities, suggesting temporary blood brain barrier disruption, consequential cerebral infarction and contrast media extravasation as the main mechanisms which allowed us to treat the patient with dual antiplatelet treatment.

Open access