The impact of the transformation of economic activities and sharp weather and climate changes on the quality of life in rural settlements on peatlands in the Moscow region was analyzed. As theoretical background, an analysis of various interpretations of the concept of the quality of life was carried out, including in the context of sustainable development. The impact of economic and environmental factors of the quality of life in rural settlements on peatlands is considered with respect to their location in the zone of attraction of Moscow. It was concluded that the development of industrialization in the region led to population decline and to increase in the anthropogenic load. This critically increased the vulnerability of peatlands to fluctuations in weather and climate conditions and several times led to serious environmental disasters. At the same time, location in the zone of attraction of Moscow opens up opportunities for improving the quality of life associated with the development of post-industrial recreational use.