This review presents the occurrence of 62 parasitic copepod species from 72 different fish species (64 wild, two cultured, seven from aquarium) from Turkey.
The parasite species list is arranged by providing parasite species name, host fish, location of host fish capture and author, date of published record.
All parasites and their hosts are confirmed with the recent systematic accounts and full taxonomic account according to literature and internet database. Siphonostomatoida with 47 species and Caligidae with 12 species are the dominant order and family among parasitic copepoda with regard to species diversity, host distribution and location.
This study determined the presence of nitric oxide synthesis isoforms (nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS) in thoracic spinal cord segments and nodose ganglia of rats with gamma-irradiated livers.
Material and Methods
Male rats (n = 32) were divided into equal groups A, B, C, and D. In group A, the controls, no radiation was applied, while groups B, C, and D received 10 Gy of ionising gamma radiation. The rats of group B were euthanized at the end of the first day (d1), those of group C on the second day (d2), and those of group D on the third day (d3). The liver, spinal cord segments, and nodose ganglion tissues were dissected and fixed, and the liver sections were examined histopathologically. The other tissues were observed through a light microscope.
Regeneration occurred at the end of d3 in hepatocytes which were radiation-damaged at the end of d1 and d2. On d1, some nNOS-positive staining was found in the neuronal cells of laminae I–III of the spinal cord and in neurons of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, some staining was observed in lamina X of the spinal cord, while none of note was in the nodose ganglion. Dense iNOS-positive staining was seen on d1 in the ependymal cells of the spinal cord and in the glial cells of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, there was still considerable iNOS staining in both tissues. There was clear eNOS-positive staining in the capillary endothelial cells of the spinal cord and light diffuse cytoplasmic staining in the neurons of the nodose ganglion on d1, and on d3, intense eNOS-positive staining was visible in several endothelial cells of the spinal cord, while light nuclear staining was recognised in the neurons of the nodose ganglion.
The nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS isoforms are activated in the spinal cord and nodose ganglion of rats after ionising radiation insult to the liver.