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  • Author: Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra x
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Open access

Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Krzysztof Rębilas

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of pea root mass in the soil, over a three-year period, under varying weather conditions and at different levels of phosphorus application, by means of evaluating and comparing parameters of a mathematical model characterising cumulative root mass distribution. A two-factor experiment was conducted in Prusy, near Krakow: the first factor was the level of phosphorus application (0-70-140 kg P2O5 ha−1) and the second was the cultivars (six cultivars were tested). Experimental data produced using the model indicated that the root distribution was strongly differentiated by water availability in the years of the study. This appeared in some cases to be a more important factor than phosphorus application rates. The estimated soil depth at which 50% of the root mass was accumulated differed significantly for the dry and the wet year. In the wet year, only very high phosphorus application rates contributed to an increase in root mass distribution. The estimation of root mass distribution from the presented data can be used to improve phosphorus application depending on the amount of precipitation.

Open access

Tomasz Zając, Agnieszka Synowiec, Andrzej Oleksy, Jan Macuda, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Franciszek Borowiec

Abstract

Cereal straw is an important biomass source in Europe. This work assessed: 1) the morphological and energetic characteristics of culms of spring and winter cereals, 2) the energy deposited in the different aboveground parts of cereals, 3) losses of energy due to different cutting heights. The straw of winter and spring cereals was collected from arable fields during the seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in southern Poland. Detailed biometric measurements of culms and internodes were performed. The losses of straw biomass and energy were assessed during simulation of cutting the culm at different heights, up to 50 cm. Longer and heavier culms were developed by winter wheat and triticale and oat. Cutting of straw up to 10 cm did not lead to significant losses in straw yield. The total amount of energy in the culms was as follows: triticale > winter wheat > oat > spring wheat > winter barley > spring barley. Cutting the culms above 20 cm led to significant differences in terms of biomass energy between cereal species. The smallest losses of energy were recorded for spring and winter barley. Oat and barley accumulated the highest energy in grains.

Open access

Tomasz Zając, Agnieszka Synowiec, Andrzej Oleksy, Jan Macuda, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Franciszek Borowiec