The article is theoretical and empirical. To prepare the theoretical part, the method of cognitive-critical analysis of world literature in the field of management, personal marketing, etc. was applied. Based on the results of this analysis, it can be concluded that there is a cognitive and research gap relating to research on universities as employers. This applies especially to associations of young potential employees with this group of employers. Therefore, the article aims to achieve the goal, which is to identify associations of young potential employees with the university as a workplace and indicate the changes taking place in them. In order to achieve this goal, three editions of empirical research were conducted, using the survey method to collect primary data. The collected data were subjected to quantitative analysis using statistical analysis methods. Its results indicate that there has been a slight improvement in terms of associations of respondents with the university as a workplace. Still, however, more than half of the respondents did not take into account taking up employment in such institutions. Therefore, it is still not an attractive employer for young Poles, which indicates the need to undertake comprehensive activities related to building a positive image as an employer.
The article has a theoretical-empirical character. Its main goal was to identify reasons of young potential employees’ interest in working at a university. To prepare the theoretical part, the method of cognitive-critical analysis of world literature on marketing, management and HRM was applied. The results of this analysis show an existing cognitive gap and a research gap in the scope of considerations about reasons of interest of the mentioned group of employees in a university as the employer. Striving for reducing both gaps some empirical researches were conducted using the questionnaire method to gather the primary data which were analyzed statistically using the method of exploratory factor analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test, etc. The obtained results made it possible to check three research hypotheses. The possibility to perform a satisfying job was not the key reason for the respondents’ interest in working at a university. The internal structure of reasons for the respondents’ interest in a university as the employer was different for the following two groups: 1/people who think that university’s employees are perceived in Poland better than those who work in other organizations; 2/people who think that university’s employees are perceived in Poland as well as those who work in other organizations. The way of perceiving employees of an university was a feature statistically significantly differentiating the reasons of the respondents’ interest in starting work at the university only in the case of high social prestige and high wages.
The article is theoretical-empirical in its character. The problems of external image of university as an employer were presented. In the theoretical part the different approaches to image and its determinants were analysed. There is the lack of researches related to image aspects of university activities, including aspects connected with its external image. The empirical part of this article is based on the results of the field researches. The way of perceiving of university as an employer by segment of young potential employees was identified and analysed. 4 research hypotheses were verified. They were formulated in the relation to connotations with university as the place of work. It was mainly consociated with possibilities of development and self-realization. Connotations with high salary, feelings of stabilization and high social prestige were weaker. In this way only one hypothesis (H4) was confirmed. It is very important prompt for universities to improve their image activities.
In the article the problems of work perceiving by employees of scientific organizations in the context of marketing orientation rules were presented. It has the theoretical-empirical character. The following research goals were to be gained: identifying the way of work perceiving by respondents; defining the potential dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially its stress dimension) and chosen aspects of professional life. 4 research hypotheses were to be verified. In the empirical part the results of the field researches were presented. To analyse gathered field data the method of correspondence analysis was used. It allowed to gain the research goals and to verify the hypotheses. All of these hypotheses were confirmed. It means that there are statistically significant dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially as stress factor) and analysed row variables. They are relatively the strongest in the case of respondents’ openness for improvement of their intellectual potential. The gained results show that scientific organizations playing the role of employers must conduct activities leading up to positive work perceiving by employees. In this case employees want to improve their knowledge and skills. They are ready to co-create the positive image of given employer too.
In the article the problems related to recommending the employer by employees are presented. It is described as the example of employees’ prosumption activity. Transmitting their opinions about the organization as the employer they become the co-creators its image which is one of the key non-material marketing values. The article has theoretical-empirical character. In the theoretical part the essence of prosumption is presented. The special attention is paid to fact that in the literature this appearance is linked with consumption products not with personnel activity. In the empirical part the results of the field researches on recommending employer and its relation determinants are presented. The statistical analysis in the form of correspondence analysis method has been used to these results. It allows to estimate the dependences between analysed variables, to define the power of identified dependences, to show their character, to sort the relation determinants of recommending in the hierarchical system etc. All of the analysed dependences are significant in the statistically meaning. The stronger dependence exists in the case of vertical relation variable in the comparison to the dependence between recommending employer and horizontal relation variable. Of course each of type of organizational relations should be supported by employer because it influences on employees’ identifying with the organization which is the key determinant of the column variable.
The article presents issues associated with the style of management applied in scientific organizations in the context of sentiments and attitudes of employees. Attention is drawn particularly to the relations between the style of management perceived by employees and the level of their perceived contentedness and the perceived level of satisfaction, as well as between the perceived style of management and attitude reflecting their readiness to recommend an organization as an employer. The application of the method of statistical analysis, namely, the analysis of correspondence allowed drawing the conclusion that there are statistically important relations between the variables. These relations are comparably strongest in case of the perceived style of management and the level of satisfaction. Thus, it can be concluded that applying democratic style to employees favours stimulating their satisfaction and contentedness and at the same time contributes to assuming an open attitude characterized by the readiness to recommend an organization as a workplace and thus co-create its positive image.
In the article the problems related to reasons of lack of young potential employees’ interest in working in Polish universities were presented. The paper is theoretical-empirical in its nature. In the theoretical part the meaning of estimating the organization as an attractive employer was underlined. It allows to attract the best employees. The special attention was paid to the necessity of building this kind of image by an university in the role of employer. It results from its character. Three research goals were to realize: to identify the reasons of lack of respondents’ interest in working in an university, to order identified reasons etc. The following research hypotheses were to verify: H1 — financial aspects are the main reason of lack of interest in working in an university; H2 — prestige aspects are the main reason of lack of interest in working in an university. The data gathered during primary research were analysed using the average value analysis method and factor analysis method. The results showed that the respondents didn’t want to work in an university because they preferred applying the knowledge and skills gained during study in the others organizations. The financial and prestige aspects had smaller meaning. In the case of respondents the both research hypotheses weren’t confirmed.
The article is theoretical-empirical in character. In the theoretical part on the basis of the results of cognitive-critical analysis of literature on the subject the chosen aspects associated with the role of the university as an employer and with the way universities can efficiently attract young people as potential employees are discussed. Attention was paid also to the necessity to apply complex image-related activities and to visible negligence in this area. The results of this analysis point to the existence of a cognitive and research gap. It is because the previous theoretical deliberations and empirical analyses conducted with regard to such activities refer to companies and not to universities. That’s why the article strives to achieve, among others, such goals as: identification of the reasons for the lack of interest in work at a university among the respondents; defining the changes in the reasons for the lack of interest in work at a university given by the respondents in the 2016–2018 period; hierarchical arrangement of the identified reasons. In the process of carrying out these goals an attempt was made to find answers to three research questions and to test the research hypothesis saying that sex is a feature differentiating the reasons for the lack of interest in work at a university mentioned by the respondents. In the empirical part of the article the results of an analysis of primary data collected by means of the method of questionnaire survey are presented. In course of the analysis the method of average assessment analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used. The results of the analysis show that the significance of the reasons for the respondents’ unwillingness to start work at a university has changed. Also, their hierarchy has changed. Moreover, sex turned out to be the distinguishing feature in case of only one reason, namely, the will to use knowledge and skills gained during studies in a workplace other than a university.
The article has theoretical-empirical character. In the theoretical part on the base of the results of cognitivecritical analysis of world literature the meaning of potential employees' connotations with a future employer was presented. The special attention was paid to the key role of these connotations in the case of an university as the employer. Universities should shape their image among young participants of outer labour market on the base of buiding the positive connotations. They can be diversified depending on the demographical features. The fact of lack of researches in this scope was underlined. So there is the cognitive and research gap. In this article the following goals were to be realized: identifying connotations with an university as the future employer among women and men; conducting the comparison of identified connotations etc. 2 research hypotheses were formulated. In the process of gaining mentioned goals and checking the both hypotheses the empirical research were realized. These research covered representatives of young potential employees. To gather the primary data the method of questionnaire survey was applied. Gathered data were analyzed statistically. The method of factor analysis was applied and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The results of these analyses showed that connotations of women were different from connotations of men. Statistical significance was identified in the case of positive connotations mainly.
The article has a theoretical and empirical character. Identifying the internal structure of reasons of lack of Polish young potential employees’ interest in universities as employers was the main goal of this paper. To prepare its theoretical part the method of cognitive-critical analysis of world literature on marketing and management was applied. The results of this analysis show that the aspects connected with the mentioned reasons have not been studied yet. The more the opinions about the way of perception of universities’ employees in the comparison of other organizations’ employees have not been taken into account in the analysis. So one can talk about the existence of a cognitive gap and an empirical gap in this scope. Striving to reduce these gaps the empirical studies were conducted. The research covered representatives of Polish young potential employees. Gathered primary data were statistically analysed applying the following research methods and tests: exploratory factor analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test. The results of these analyses show that the opinions on relative perception of universities’ employees decide about differences in the structure of reasons of lack of interest in universities as employers. But the mentioned opinions are the element differentiating in a statistically significant way only one reason.