Introduction: One of the most common pathologies in urological praxis is urinary lithiasis. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or frequently retrograde ureteroscopy are modern pathways in the treatment of this kind of pathology. There are certain problems which may develop after the ureteroscopy such as infection with fever complication.
Material and method: This retrospective study evaluates 164 patients who underwent ureteroscopy treatment over a period of two years (2011-2012). We compared the infection complication episode (with fever) in 33 (20.12%) patients with antibiotic prophylaxis (group A) versus 131 (79.87%) patients without prophylaxis (group B). Antibiotics used for prophylaxis were: amoxicilinum and clavulanic acid, generation I and II cephalosporines.
Results: Twenty-four (14.63%) patients presented postsurgical fever. Most febrile patients were those with grade II hydronephrosis - 16 (66.66%), of which 2 (6.06%) patients from group A and 14 (10.68%) from group B. From group A, 3 (12%) patients with stones below 10 mm had fever, while 18 (14.87%) from group B developed this complication. Among the patients with stones’ size over 10 mm, 1 (14.28) patient from group A and 2 (25%) patients from group B had fever.
Conclusions: Patients undergoing the ureteroscopy treatment should be investigated before the procedures for the presence of bacteria in order to avoid complications like infection associated with fever. Antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce the incidence of postoperative infection in the ureteroscopy treatment.