Apparatus suitable for measuring gas diffusion capacity of cigarette paper was assembled and evaluated. The apparatus provides semi-automated means for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide diffusing through a small area of the paper, and computation of a paper thickness-dependent diffusion capacity of the sample. Measurements are rapid and can be made in about 30 s. Diffusion capacity measurements were repeatable and reproducible to within about 1%. Variability of the diffusion capacity values was much lower than that observed for permeability measurements. For these reasons, the apparatus is useful for quality assessment and research applications. Diffusion capacity was measured for cigarette papers of inherent permeability ranging from 6 to 62 cm/min. As expected from prevailing theory, the diffusion capacity values generally increased with permeability. The diffusion capacity measured for electrostatically perforated papers was only slightly higher (about 6-11%) than the unperforated base paper despite large increases in permeability. This result indicates that diffusion capacity is governed by small pores in the paper. The apparatus is capable of measuring banded areas of papers designed for reduced ignition propensity. Diffusion capacity values for banded areas were lower than those of non-banded paper of similar permeability, suggesting that the band material preferentially occludes small pores in the paper.
AB Norman, TA Perfetti, PF Perfetti and RG Hayworth
Recent studies demonstrated a relationship between mass burn rates of straight-grade cigarettes and heats of combustion of the tobacco materials. In the present work, relationships between measured heats of combustion and elemental composition of the tobacco materials were further analyzed. Heats of combustion measured in oxygen were directly correlated with the carbon and hydrogen content of the tobacco materials tested. Ash content of the materials was inversely related to the heats of combustion. The water insoluble residues from exhaustively extracted tobacco materials showed higher heats of combustion and higher carbon content than the non-extracted materials, confirming a direct relationship between carbon content and heat of combustion. A value for the heat of formation of tobacco was estimated (1175 cal/g) from the heat of combustion data and elemental analysis results. The estimated value for heat of formation of tobacco appears to be constant regardless of the material type. Heat values measured in air were uniformly lower than the combustion heats in oxygen, suggesting formation of CO and other reaction products. Gases produced during bomb calorimetry experiments with five tobacco materials were analyzed for CO and CO2 content. When the materials were burned in oxygen, no CO was found in the gases produced. Measured heats of combustion matched estimates based on CO2 found in the gas and conversion of the sample hydrogen content to water. Materials burned in air produced CO2 (56% to 77% of the sample carbon content) and appreciable amounts of CO (7% to 16% of the sample carbon content). Unburned residue containing carbon and hydrogen was found in the air combustion experiments. Estimated heat values based on amounts of CO and CO2 found in the gas and water formed from the hydrogen lost during combustion in air were higher than the measured values. These observations indicate formation of products containing hydrogen when the materials were burned in air. CO and CO2 formation during combustion in air were related to the composition of the tobacco materials. Materials with high carbon and low ash content showed evidence of higher CO2 formation. Amounts of unburned residue also varied with material composition. Thus, energy released during tobacco combustion in air is related to material-dependent formation of reaction products in addition to the carbon oxides and to the quantity of unburned material.
TA Perfetti, AB Norman, BM Gordon, WM Coleman III, WT Morgan, GM Dull and CW Miller
Transfer of nicotine to mainstream smoke was measured for Reference cigarettes made with the addition of 20 -40 mg of seven different nicotine salts, d- and l-nicotine and N’-formylnornicotine. Regression analysis of the nicotine yields from these cigarettes as a function of the nicotine content of the tobacco rods indicated an average nicotine transfer efficiency (17.5%), similar to that found for a separate series of cigarettes made with single-grade tobacco materials (16.2%). Analysis of the enantiomeric purity of the smoke nicotine from the cigarettes made with added nicotine salts and neat nicotine showed no evidence of conversion between l- and d-nicotine during the smoking process. The cigarette made with added N’-formylnornicotine showed no evidence of additional nicotine transfer attributable to reduction of this compound to nicotine. A third series of cigarettes were made with varying levels of d- and l-nicotine added to a tobacco blend and to reconstituted tobacco to further investigate transfer efficiency of the enantiomers. Regression analysis indicated no statistically significant difference between transfer efficiencies of d- and l-nicotine. These results suggest that nicotine salts and d- and l-nicotine transfer to smoke at the same efficiency. However, transfer efficiency of either compound was lower when applied to reconstituted tobacco (9.7%) than when applied to the Reference tobacco blend (15.3%). The thermal stabilities of nicotine salts have little bearing on efficiency of transfer to smoke or on racemization between d- and l-nicotine. Formation of d-nicotine in mainstream smoke via reduction of N’-formylnornicotine does not appear to occur.