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Open access

P. Lacki and A. Derlatka

The dynamic development of the friction stir welding (FSW) technology is the basis for the design of durabe joints inter alia in the aviation industry. This technology has a prospective application, especially for the aluminum alloys. It is suitable for a broad spectrum of permanent joints. The joints obtained by FSW technology are characterized by good mechanical properties. In this paper, the friction stir spot welding joints were analysed. The example of a structure made using this technology were presented. The lap joints made of 2mm Al 6061-T6 sheets were the investigation subject. The different spot welds arrangements were analysed. The tensile test were performed with optical deformation measurement system, which allow to obtain the plastic deformation field on the sample surface. The plastic strain graphs for the characteristic line passing through the maximum deformation were registered and presented. The experimental results were compared to the FEM numerical analysis. The numerical models were built with 3D-solid elements. The boundary conditions, material properties and geometry of the joints were identical as during experimental investigation. The mechanism of deformation of welded joints during tensile test was described and explained. It has been found that the arrangement of the spot welds with respect to the tensile direction has an important influence on the behaviour and deformation of lap joint.

Open access

P. Lacki, A. Derlatka and T. Gałaczyński


One of the important parameters of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding is the so-called basic position of the tool. This is the arrangement of the pin and sleeve which occurs when the tool is plunged into the material. The basic positions can be divided into two categories. In the first category, the sleeve and the pin are above the sheet surface or below sheet surface and in the second category the pin is retracted within the sleeve or protrudes from it.

The aim of the work was to test four settings of the basic position, and then determine the best setting of the basic position, without changing the other welding parameters. Joints made of an aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheet having a thickness of 1.0 mm and an aluminum alloy D16UTW sheet having a thickness of 0.6 mm were analysed. The best setting of the basic position was determined based on assessment of the force carried in shear test, macrostructure and weld face of the joints.