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Hui Li, Xiao-Dong Yang, Yong-Rui Yang, Si-Yuan Gao, De-Ying Tian and Quan Yuan

Abstract

Background and Aims Recently, epidemiology studies of hepatitis E in different areas are attracted more attention. Extensive studies of prevalent status and clinical manifestations could help us to broaden our knowledge, so as to excellently prevent and treat hepatitis E. The study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of 394 cases of sporadic acute hepatitis E (AHE) in Southwest of China from 2008 to 2010.

Methods The clinical data of 394 cases with sporadic AHE in Southwest of China from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed.

Results In the 394 cases with sporadic AHE, the ratio of male/female was 1.432 : 1, and the mean age was (31.53 ± 18.12) years. Totally, 94 (23.86%) patients aged under 18, 271 (68.78%) patients aged between 18 and 60, and 29 (7.36%) patients aged above 60. The incidence rate was significantly increased in summer (P = 0.000), especially in May (14.72%) and July (13.71%). In addition, the characteristics of occupation and ethnic group distribution were migrant laborers (106/394, 26.90%) and Han people (365/394, 92.64%). The length of stay, incidence of jaundice, the peak value of total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase in male patients were all higher than those in female patients significantly (P < 0.05). The prolonged length of stay, decreased levels of ALT/ALB/CHE, increased levels of TBil, and increased incidence of jaundice and fatigue were associated with older age significantly (P < 0.05). The differences in peak values of total bilirubin (TBil), total bile acid (TBA), glutamyltransferase (GGT), cholinesterase (CHE) between AHE group and the groups of AHE accompanied respectively by chronic hepatitis B (CHB), acute alcoholic fatty liver (AFL), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were significant (P < 0.05). In addition, no significant difference was found in length of stay and biochemical indexes among anti-HEV-IgG positive group, anti-HEV-IgM positive group and anti- HEV-IgM/IgG both positive group (P > 0.05).

Conclusions Four epidemiological characteristics, including aged between 18 and 60, male, summer and migrant laborers, are found to be associated with acute hepatitis E. The prognosis of AHE in the majority of patients was favorable, but aged above 60 years and coexistence with CHB, AFL and NAFLD could be considerede as the factors inducing the infaust prognosis.

Open access

Shu-Hua Zhao, Fan Zhao, Jing-Ying Zheng, Li-Fang Gao, Xue-Jian Zhao and Man-Hua Cui

Knockdown of stat3 expression by RNAi inhibits in vitro growth of human ovarian cancer

Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the suppressive effects of pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3 recombinant plasmids on the growth of ovarian cancer in vitro.

Material and methods. Three pairs of DNA template (stat3-1, stat3-2, stat3-3) specific for different target sites on stat3 mRNA were synthesized to reconstruct pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3s, which were transfected into SKOV3 cells. The expressions of STAT3, BcL-2, cyclin D1 and C-myc in these cells were detected by Western blot and Northern blot. The cell cycle and the growth were determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and MTT assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining.

Results. Of the three siRNAs, only siRNA targeting stat3-3 markedly suppressed the protein expression of stat3 in SKOV3 cells; MTT assay and FCM showed that transfection of stat3-3 siRNA could significantly suppress the growth of SKOV3 cells and arrest the cell cycle in vitro. TUNEL staining also showed massive apoptosis in SKOV3 cells transfected with stat3-3 siRNA.

Conclusions. pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3-3 can significantly inhibit the STAT3 expression in human ovarian cancer cells resulting in the inhibition of the cancer growth and the increase of apoptosis of cancer cells.

Open access

Changzheng Gao, Qi Lu, Suxia Guo, Zhenyu Yang, Kulin Li, Qiang Wang and Ruxing Wang

Abstract

Background: High plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF) often indicate poor ventricular function and poor prognosis. However, in some such patients plasma BNP levels are normal.

Objective: To investigate the clinical implications of BNP levels in patients with severe CHF.

Methods: Fifty-seven patients with severe CHF were divided into group A (13 normal plasma BNP level) and 44 patients (high plasma BNP levels) group B. Diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (or angiotensin II receptor antagonist, e.g., metoprolol) and digitalis were used as conventional treatment. The clinical characteristics of all patients in two groups were analyzed and compared.

Results: At the first admission, left ventricular end diastolic diameter in group B was significantly lower than group A (p < 0.05), and the plasma BNP level in group B was significantly higher than group A (p < 0.05). When metoprolol was used, 6 and 5 patients in group A and B could not tolerate the initial dose. In other cases using metoprolol at average maximum tolerance dose of metoprolol 12.5-6.25 and 24.20-11.22 mg/day in group A and B, respectively, there was a significant difference between them (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma BNP levels between two groups during stable period. The plasma BNP level in group B during acute worsening stage was significantly higher than in the remission stage (962.73-165.00 ng/L vs 876.24-167.70 ng/L, p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between group A (74.03-11.18 ng/L) and group B (71.38-11.68 ng/L) (p > 0.05). The mobility of group A was higher than group B (11/12 vs 6/44, p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that, the plasma BNP level was the independent risk factor for predicting cardiac death (regression coefficient, 3.817; OR, 45.488; 95% CI, 5.322ʺ388.791).

Conclusion: In patients with severe CHF, normal plasma BNP level suggests depletion of BNP secretion and further deterioration of cardiac function, indicating a poor prognosis.

Open access

Cheng-bao Wang, Jian-jie Chen, Hong-ming Nie, Feng Gao, Hua Lv and Hong-ding Li

Abstract

Objective This study was undertaken to investigate the influencing factors on serum ALT level and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA titer in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients.

Methods All patients enrolled into this study were anti-HCV positive. Retrospective tracing method was applied to detect serum ALT level and HCV RNA titer and to collect general information of the patients such as genders, age groups, interferon medication history, infection pathways, height and weight. Then the multi-factor analysis was adopted with the application of binominal logistic regression mode.

Results The abnormal rate of ALT level was positively correlated to HCV RNA and gender while negatively correlated to interferon medication history and age group, with Wald value of the 4 factors as 39.604, 11.823, 18.991 and 7.389, respectively. The positive rate of HCV RNA was negatively correlated to interferon medication history and gender while positively correlated to ALT level, with corresponding Wald value of the 3 factors as 81.394, 7.618 and 27.562, respectively.

Conclusions The normal ALT level in HCV infected patients was associated with viral load, age, gender and interferon medication history, while the normal rate of HCV RNA titer was closely associated with gender, interferon medication history and ALT level.

Open access

Dawei Gao, Zhenqian Lu, Chunxia Wang, Weiwei Li and Pengyu Dong

Abstract

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TiO2 NT) arrays were prepared by anodic oxidizing method on the surface of the Ti substrate. Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube (N-TiO2 NT) arrays were carried out by ammonia solution immersion, and Ag nanoparticles loaded N-doped TiO2 nanotube (Ag/N-TiO2 NT) arrays were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The result indicated that the diameter and wall thickness of the TiO2 NT are 100–120 and 20–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and structure of the highly ordered TiO2 NTs were not affected by N-doping. Furthermore, Ag nanoparticles were evenly deposited on the surface of TiO2 NTs in the form of elemental silver. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/N-TiO2 NTs was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation. The Ag/N-TiO2 NTs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties, which could reach 95% after 90-min irradiation.

Open access

Zengke Li, Yifei Yao, Jian Wang and Jingxiang Gao

Abstract

A robust Kalman filter improved with IGG (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics) scheme is proposed and used to resist the harmful effect of gross error from GPS observation in PPP/INS (precise point positioning/inertial navigation system) tightly coupled positioning. A new robust filter factor is constructed as a three-section function to increase the computational efficiency based on the IGG principle. The results of simulation analysis show that the robust Kalman filter with IGG scheme is able to reduce the filter iteration number and increase efficiency. The effectiveness of new robust filter is demonstrated by a real experiment. The results support our conclusion that the improved robust Kalman filter with IGG scheme used in PPP/INS tightly coupled positioning is able to remove the ill effect of gross error in GPS pseudorange observation. It clearly illustrates that the improved robust Kalman filter is very effective, and all simulated gross errors added to GPS pseudorange observation are successfully detected and modified.

Open access

Ting-Ting Li, Jian-Zhong Xie, Ling Wang, Yang-Yang Gao and Xue-Hua Jiang

Abstract

Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic metabolite, has been reported to protect susceptible organs during hypoxia or ischemia. However, there is paucity of human data on its pharmacokinetics after being exogenously administered. In the current study, the preliminary pharmacokinetics of FDP given orally to humans was investigated, and no typical peak was observed in the serum drug-time curve. Then, the pharmacokinetic studies were performed following multiple doses of FDP in rats, and the Caco-2 monolayer model was used to study the absorption of FDP in vitro. The results suggested that plasma FDP concentration was significantly increased after oral multiple doses of 180 mg kg-1 but not 90 mg kg-1 of FDP, and FDP was partly depleted during the absorption, which was supposed to be consumed by the intestinal epithelium cells. Thus, we conclude that a high dose of FDP should be orally administered in order to get an effective plasma level.

Open access

Xiaoying Li, Gaoming Jiang, Xiaolin Nie, Pibo Ma and Zhe Gao

Abstract

This paper introduces a knitting technique for making innovative curved three-dimensional (3D) spacer fabrics by the computer flat-knitting machine. During manufacturing, a number of reinforcement yarns made of aramid fibres are inserted into 3D spacer fabrics along the weft direction to enhance the fabric tensile properties. Curved, flat-knitted 3D spacer fabrics with different angles (in the warp direction) were also developed. Tensile tests were carried out in the weft and warp directions for the two spacer fabrics (with and without reinforcement yarns), and their stress–strain curves were compared. The results showed that the reinforcement yarns can reduce the fabric deformation and improve tensile stress and dimensional stability of 3D spacer fabrics. This research can help the further study of 3D spacer fabric when applied to composites.

Open access

Zhigang Zhang, Jianguo Wang, Ruifeng Gao, Weiqian Zhang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Wang and Xinglin Zhu

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine expression of gene of insulin receptor (INSR) in adipose tissue of postpartum dairy cows fed diets containing different amounts of energy at the antepartum period. Healthy pregnant dairy cows (n=45) on 21st d of the antepartum were divided into three groups differing in diet composition, namely: control group fed a normal diet, high energy group fed a high energy diet, and low energy group fed a low energy diet. Twenty-one days after parturition, INSR gene expression in adipose tissue was determined by internally controlled reverse transcriptase PCR. The level of INSR mRNA in adipose tissues of cows fed the high energy diet was substantially lower than that in cows fed normal or low energy diets. A relatively higher level of INSR mRNA in the adipose tissue of cows fed low energy diet may be beneficial for gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, which can relieve an energy negative balance. Reduced level of INSR mRNA in adipose tissue of cows fed high energy diet indicates that the response to insulin has significantly decreased.

Open access

Linyu Gao, Yi Zhang, Liu Hong, Bingyang Xu, Yaoshuo Sang, Zhengyu Xu, Mingjian Zhang, Songjin Zheng, Xue Yun, Wenqi Li, Xiaoling Tang and Bin Li

Summary

In order to investigate the main factors behind hot coal fallout during cigarette smoking, an in-use behavior survey among smokers was conducted in three locations (Guiyang, Shijiazhuang and Nanchang) in China. In addition, a measuring device was designed to record whether a flicking or tapping force was exerted to remove ash and to record the force applied as well as their characteristic parameters. We found that there was no significant difference among the behavior characteristic parameters of the users in the three locations. The proportion of consumers who applied flicking was higher than the proportion of consumers tapping. There were some differences in the in-use behavior when smoking King Size and Superslim cigarettes. The work could help to develop a suitable hot coal fallout test method.