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  • Author: Codrut Sarafoleanu x
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Permeabilization surgery of the upper respiratory tract and its effects on sleep fragmentation and REM sleep


Usually, patients with sleep disorders may complain of tiredness, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, difficulty in concentrating, and can reach up to falling asleep in inappropriate situations – condition known as the Pickwick syndrome. To avoid these unpleasant symptoms, a series of surgical procedures regarding the anatomical structures involved in sleep apnea were developed.

The article is a general review regarding the sleep disorders and the influence of upper airways permeability on the quality of sleep and the sleep staging distribution. Also, we present some preliminary data obtained in a clinical study underwent in CESITO Centre “Sfanta Maria” Hospital, Bucharest, involving patients with sleep pathology that had polysomnographic evaluations before and after various surgical procedures of nasal and pharyngeal permeabilization.

AIMS. To determine that permeabilization surgery of the upper airway tract may be used successfully in order to decrease the sleep fragmentation and increase the time of slow-wave sleep.

CONCLUSION. 6 months after the permeabilization surgery of the upper airway tract, the polysomnography reveals that the arousals index decreased and the sleep architecture undergoes changes that consist in decreasing the Stage 1 and Stage 2 sleep, therefore REM sleep reaches a better score.

Open access
Primary neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma in larynx: case report and literature review


Background. Neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx represent a rare group of neoplasms characterized by pathological and biological heterogeneity. The histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis is the most important step in the appropriate management of these tumors and the prognosis varies according to histological types. Conventional anatomical and functional imaging can be complementary for diagnosis, staging and monitoring of treatment response. Material and methods. Here we report on a case of a laryngeal neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma occurring in a 67-year-old man who was referred to our clinic for clinical reevaluation, diagnosis and treatment. The clinical presentation, the histopathological and immunohistochemical examination and management of this kind of tumor are highlighted. Conclusion. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are very aggressive neoplasms. Patients could benefit from surgery, but radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain the treatment of choice. Very low incidence of neuroendocrine tumors in the larynx and specifically very poor prognosis of neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma encouraged an extensive literature review.

Open access
The importance of computerized dynamic posturography in vestibular rehabilitation of patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficiency


OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the importance of computerized dynamic posturography in vestibular rehabilitation of patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficiency syndrome.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was conducted on a group of 30 patients (33-78 years; mean age (± SD) = 55.8 ± 12.12) diagnosed with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficiency syndrome, which benefited from VR on a posturography platform. Assessment of the patients was made using the Sensory Organization Test before and after eight sessions of rehabilitation. We analyzed the results obtained with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) on static and foam platform. The following variables were evaluated: Romberg coefficient, statokinesigram (SKG), maximum amplitude of the degree of deviation in anterior/posterior and medial/lateral planes, SKG and the time interval of the game rehabilitation program.

RESULTS. The statistical analysis of the data revealed a strong correlation (p<0.05) for the studied parameters, especially when the test was performed with the eyes closed on foam platform. The analysis of the Romberg coefficient did not show statistically significant results (p>0.05) and the measured values were outside the range of normality even at the end of the rehabilitation program. SKG and the time interval reference of the game showed significant improvement of the parameters (p<0.05); at the end of the rehabilitation sessions, 93.33% of the patients showed full recovery of their deficit.

CONCLUSION. Computerized dynamic posturography has a particularly important role in the evaluation, monitoring and rehabilitation of the patients with peripheral vestibular deficiency.

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Schneiderian membrane adult vasculogenesis evaluated by CD31 and CD34 expression and morphological arrangement


Background. Few studies approached the process of blood vessels formation in the Schneiderian membrane. We aimed at investigating by immunohistochemistry the processes that are responsible for forming new blood vessels in the human Schneiderian membrane.

Material and methods. We applied CD31 and CD34 markers on bioptic samples gathered from eight adult patients negative for malignant pathologies. Filopodia-projecting endothelial tip cells (ETCs) were found and indicated processes of sprouting angiogenesis. Also, CD31-expressing monocyte-derived cells were found being involved in processes of vasculogenesis. These cells were projecting filopodia, thus being assessed as endothelial progenitor tip cells (EpTCs). Aggregates of CD31+ EpTCs were also analyzed. Further stages of lumen acquisition and large diameter vessels formation, specific for vasculogenesis, were evaluated.

Results. It resulted that, specifically within the maxillary sinus mucosa, vascular remodelling is equally ensured by adult vasculogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis.

Conclusion. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of adult vasculogenesis in the maxillary sinus mucosa, supported by bona fide bone marrow-derived CD31+ cells. The guidance mechanism of EpTCs protrusions needs further investigations for finding similarities, or dissimilarities, with the endothelial tip cells prolongations.

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Evolution of microbial etiology in acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and its role in the current management of antibiotic treatment


BACKGROUND. Acute and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are common conditions worldwide. In most cases, the etiology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is viral, but there can be cases complicated by bacterial infection. The bacterial pathogens responsible for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) in most cases are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Moraxella catarrhalis. In recent years, some changes regarding this issue have been communicated. Also, the pathophysiology of CRS becomes a problem due to the increasing percentage of resistant or recurrent cases.

OBJECTIVE. To identify the bacterial spectrum in patients diagnosed with ABRS and CRS and to establish the actual resistance rates of the most prescribed antibiotics for these affections in order to initiate the correct antibiotic treatment.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a prospective study on 40 adult patients with ABRS and 70 patients with CRS. The standard microbiological procedures were performed in order to identify the involved microorganisms. The Antibiotic Susceptibility Test of the clinical isolates was performed to routinely used antibiotics according to EUCAST.

RESULT. ABRS: A total of 21 types of pathogenic bacteria were isolated. The results indicated changes in the percentages of the traditionally involved bacteria, other species of streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus representing important pathogens. Almost half of the samples were polymicrobial. CRS: 12 bacteria were incriminated for CRS, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequently identified pathogens. Regarding the antibiotic treatment, we established that in our country the resistance rates are higher than the ones communicated by WHO (especially for macrolides) and the fluoroquinolones seem to be the class with the highest safety profile.

CONCLUSION. Study results demonstrate some changes of the bacteriologic spectrum in ABRS in this geographic area. The pathogens responsible for CRS are found in approximately the same percentage as presented in other studies. Antibiotic treatment demands attention considering the increasing trend of antibiotic resistance of the bacteria causing ABRS and CRS.

Open access
Primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma – Case report and literature review


BACKGROUND. Primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma is a rare tumor with a poor survival rate. There is an inherent difficulty in diagnosing these lesions, especially because their complex anatomic locations and symptoms can be frequently confused with other benign or malignant processes. The purpose of our study was to report a difficult case and review the literature and recent research on therapeutic modalities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We herein report a 61-year-old female patient, with a history of right eye enucleation and prosthesis, who presented with obstruction of the left nostril, anterior and posterior mucopurulent rhinorrhea, anosmia, left facial numbness, left exophthalmia accompanied by ipsilateral epiphora and decreased visual acuity.

RESULTS. Clinical and imagistic testing revealed a large, grayish, fleshy tumor localized in the left maxillary sinus, with extension to the left orbit (producing osteolysis of the inferior and medial orbital walls), nasopharynx, ethmoidal cells and left frontal sinus. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination confirmed the diagnosis of mucosal melanoma. Other primary sites were excluded. The patient succumbed shortly after, following only palliative treatment.

CONCLUSION. Early diagnosis of primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma is essential but very difficult to detect. Any symptoms such as unilateral epistaxis or nasal obstruction in a patient over the age of 60 should be rendered suspicious. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination for diagnosis and prognostic factors are important. Although surgery is the first option for treatment, one must consider, according to tumor staging, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with immunotherapy as a viable course of treatment for advanced cases.

Open access
Treatment difficulties in salivary gland cancer


Salivary gland cancers are represented by a heterogeneous histologic group of tumors, with low incidence, which may appear both in major and minor salivary glands. This article presents a review of the difficulties which may be encountered in this pathology during the treatment. The diagnosis of salivary gland cancers is often delayed, due to the histopathologic and immunohistochemistry results given in different period of times. There can be several difficulties in following the oncologic pre-treatment protocols, in terms of imaging technique, as MRI, useful for disease staging.

The treatment of salivary gland cancers is complex, due to the local anatomy and their aggressive potential. Because of their decreased incidence, there are few data that investigate the treatment in the case of these diseases. The current therapy available for the patients with salivary gland cancers is represented by complete surgical resection. Several treatment difficulties in cancers of the salivary glands may come from the surgical limitations and the insufficient data for adjuvant and palliative treatment. Due to the limitations of the local health system, there is a heterogeneous distribution of the oncologic centers, lack of equipment, prolonged time to follow general protocols, despite the aspect of case-individualized therapy according to the guidelines. We must not forget the tumor behaviour and individual reactivity of different patients to the same treatment protocol.

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Pulmonary tuberculosis with rhinosinusal and otic manifestations - diagnostic challenge


BACKGROUND. Unfortunately, tuberculosis is still being diagnosed among patients, independent of their age, gender, provenance or social category. The etiologic agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is known to have a period of latency between the initial infection and the clinical manifestation. The most common localization is pulmonary, but it can affect, secondarily, other organs, especially in the ENT regions, mimicking other systemic diseases.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We are presenting a case of a 51-year-old female patient, who was referred to our ENT Clinic with the suspicion of Behcet’s disease with rhinosinusal manifestations. She had a pulmonary assessment in another hospital, as she was known with left lung bronchiectasis, but the sputum samples were negative. The clinical otorhinolaryngologic examination together with the rheumato-logical assessment and the result of the nasal mucosa biopsy were suggestive for Behcet’s disease and the patient received 6 weeks of Prednisolone. The specific immunologic tests (cANCA, pANCA, HLA B51) were negative. The patient returned to our clinic after 2 months, accusing symptomatology reacutization with right otorrhea and bilateral hearing loss aggravation. Nasal and rhinopharyngeal mucosa biopsies were repeated and the anatomopathological result was specific for tuberculosis.

RESULTS. She was referred to the Pneumology Service where she received the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis with rhinosinusal and otic manifestations. Currently, the patient is under tuberculostatic treatment.

CONCLUSION. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis symptoms might be confused with other systemic diseases with rhinosinusal manifestations. Thorough examination and multidisciplinary approach are mandatory in order to establish a correct diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment.

Open access