Due to the high exploration cost, limited number of wells for source rocks drilling and scarce test samples for the Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC) in the Huizhou sag, the TOC prediction of source rocks in this area and the assessment of resource potentials of the basin are faced with great challenges. In the study of TOC prediction, predecessors usually adopted the logging assessment method, since the data is only confined to a “point” and the regional prediction of the source bed in the seismic profile largely depends on the recognition of seismic facies, making it difficult to quantify TOC. In this study, we combined source rock geological characteristics, logging and seismic response and built the mathematical relation between quasi TOC curve and seismic data based on the TOC logging date of a single well and its internal seismic attribute. The result suggested that it was not purely a linear relationship that was adhered to by predecessors, but was shown as a complicated non-linear relationship. Therefore, the neural network algorithm and SVMs were introduced to obtain the optimum relationship between the quasi TOC curve and the seismic attribute. Then the goal of TOC prediction can be realized with the method of seismic inversion.
After China’s collective forest tenure reform, cooperation organization has played an important role on the development of community forestry. In order to analyse the different stakeholders’ opinion and suggestion on the development of forestry cooperation organization, publicizing and training, participatory interview, brainstorming, and questionnaire surveys were used in this case study. According to the results it can be seen that the real motivation for the development of cooperatives is farmers’ demands and the demands come from farmers’ pursuit of interests in forest industry. Cooperatives in China are still in the early stage of development, and the cooperative laws cannot cover all the basic features of the forestry and the cooperatives. Therefore, the relevant laws and guarantee systems for resource exploitation and management, publicity and demonstration, forestry technology training as well as the preferential policies such as tax breaks, are needed for the sound development of China’s forestry cooperation organization.
Wenfeng Wu, Yubin Yang, Jianwei Zhang and Jinshu Lu
Due to the great danger of the collision of oil tankers, lots of research on the collision of oil tankers has been carried out. But, at present, the research on the collision of oil tankers mainly focuses on the loading condition of the struck ship, ignores the impact on the loading condition of the striking ship. However, during the actual oil tanker collision, the striking ship is generally in the state of loading. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the analysis of the impact of the loading condition of the striking ship on the collision damage of the oil tanker. In this paper, the effect of striking ship with loading on the impact performance of the side structure during the collision of the cargo double hull oil tanker has been investigated. The ship collision model was established by using the finite element software ANSYS/LS-DYNA which is based on 7000 tons of double hull oil tankers. Based on the analysis of the collision force, impact of striking speed changes, impact of striking deep changes and structural energy absorption during the collision process, the influence of the striking ship with loading on the damage mechanism and the impact performance of the double shell oil ship side structure was expounded. The results show that the influence of the striking ship with loading can be great to the damage to side hull during the research of the collision performance of the oil tanker.
Wenlai Xu, Ju Yang, Jing Wang, Yue Jian and Min Tang
this paper studied the start-up of natural bio-film colonization under the conditions where wet-to-dry ratio was 1:6, hydraulic load was 0.8m3/m2·d, and water temperature was 10°C-15°C, it took 25d in total to become mature, after the success of bio-film colonization, the removal rate of COD and NH4+-N can be stabilized at 80%, and the removal rate of NH4+-N can reach 90% above. The microorganism was divided into the following stages during bio-film colonization: 1.Reversible adhesion of cell on the surface of the carrier, 2.Irreversible adhesion of cell on the surface of the carrier, 3.Division of cell adhering to the surface of the carrier and formation of microcolony adhering to the surface of the carrier, 4.Growth of microcolony adhering to the surface of the carrier to be mature bio-film with three-dimensional structure. The process of natural bio-film colonization can be judged comprehensively according to removal rate of NH4+-N and COD, effluent pH as well as color of microbial film.
Jian Yang, Jinfu Feng, Yongli Li, An Liu, Junhua Hu and Zongcheng Ma
In the process that the submarine-launched missile exits the water, there is the complex fluid solid coupling phenomenon. Therefore, it is difficult to establish the accurate water-exit dynamic model. In the paper, according to the characteristics of the water-exit motion, based on the traditional method of added mass, considering the added mass changing rate, the water-exit dynamic model is established. And with help of the CFX fluid simulation software, a new calculation method of the added mass that is suit for submarine-launched missile is proposed, which can effectively solve the problem of fluid solid coupling in modeling process. Then by the new calculation method, the change law of the added mass in water-exit process of the missile is obtained. In simulated analysis, for the water-exit process of the missile, by comparing the results of the numerical simulation and the calculation of theoretical model, the effectiveness of the new added mass calculation method and the accuracy of the water-exit dynamic model that considers the added mass changing rate are verified.
Accurate tide height is crucial for the safe navigation of large deep-draft ships when they enter and leave the port. We have proposed an accurate forecasting method for the tide heights from the observation data and neural networks, which can easily calculate the tidal window period of large deep-draft ships’ navigation through long channels at high tide. Moreover, an artificial neural network is established for the tide height from the observation of tide heights before their current time node. For an ideal forecast, the neural network was optimized for one year with the tide height data of Huanghua Port. In case of large ships, their tidal characteristics of channels for are complex. A new method is proposed for the observation of multiple stations and artificial neural networks of each observation station. When ships are navigating through the port, the tide height is predicted from the observed data and forecast tide heights of multiple observation stations. Thus, a valid tidal window period is secured when the ships enter the port. Comparative analysis of the ship’s tidal window period with that of the measured one can lead us to conclude that the forecasted data has a strong correlation with the measurement. So, our proposed algorithm can accurately predict the tide height and calculate the node timing when the ship enters and depart the port. Finally, these results can be applied for the safe navigation of large deep-draft ships when the port is at high tide.
Chang-Liang He, Qiong Yi, Yuan-Fang Li, Hang Yang and Lu Wang
Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) from Kunming mice were isolated and stimulated in vitro with 10 μg/mL of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The release of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) into culture supernatants was measured by ELISA. Furthermore, blocking experiments with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 antibodies were performed to verify whether cytokine secretion depended on LPS-induced activation of TLR2 or TLR4. The results revealed that LPS-stimulated mouse MECs significantly secreted TNF-α and IL-8. Blocking of the TLR4 pathway inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-8, while inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-8 production was not observed when TLR2 was blocked. Thus, TLR4 can mediate the LPS-induced expression of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-8 in mouse MECs.
X Chen, J Guo, J Huang, J Yang, T Jiang, D Sun and X Yu
Experiments were conducted from 1996 to 1998 at the Hefei Institute of Economics and Technology and at the Oriental Experimental Station of the Zhejiang Province (China). Seven F1 hybrids and three parental varieties of Oriental tobaccos were evaluated for the characteristics of photosynthetic and transpiration rates, esterase isozymes, resistance to black shank, quality and product potential from the 1996-1998 growing seasons. Tobacco leaves had higher photosynthetic rates and many differences among genotypes in the early stage of plant vigorous growth compared with more mature leaves. However, transpiration rates were lower in the younger leaves and greater in the more mature leaves. All the entries had four common bands (B1, B3, B4 and B6) of the esterase isoenzymes. Differences between entries resulted from in having or not having the B2 and B5 bands and color intensity differences of all the bands. These differences could be used to identify individual entries. The F1hybrids Samsun X Toy and Samsun X Argjiro, compared with the CK Samsun control, had obvious heterotic vigor in the characteristics of product, for yield, quality and resistance to black shank. The F1 hybrid Samsun X Toy maintained higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates in the two growth stages compared to other entries. However, the F1hybrid Samsun X Argjiro had higher photosynthetic rates and lower transpiration rates in the early growth stage and the two rates were lower in the later stage, but it maintained higher photosynthetic rates for the whole growth stage. Net photosynthetic rates had a significant positive correlation with yield product, quality and resistance to black shank of the Oriental tobacco F1hybrids.
3-Oxo-α-ionol ethyl carbonate, a precursor of megastigmatrienones was prepared by reduction of α-ionone to α-ionol, followed by esterification with ethyl chloroformate and then by oxidation with t-butyl chromate. The total yield was about 23%. Infrared (IR) and mass spectra of this compound were determined. Upon smoking, cigarettes to which 0.002% by weight of the titled compound was added had an improved and more harmonious flavor. The smoke was sweeter and had a cleaner after taste. Experimental results suggest that the title compound added to the tobacco pyrolyzes to form megastigmatrienones during smoking.
Haoju Wang, Li Ni, Hongjun Yang, Limin Xu, Ning Ma and Honglei Ding
In order to evaluate the prevalence of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in goats in Chongqing, China, an epidemiological survey in this area was carried out. A total of 68 samples were subjected to bacteria isolation on Hartley’s medium. Four isolates (three from lung tissue and one from nasal discharges) were recovered from the samples and identified as the Mycoplasma species by their morphological and biochemical characteristics. They were further confirmed by PCR using 16S rRNA specific primer pairs and by restriction enzyme analysis. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates indicated that some strains had developed resistance to the antibiotics tested. This is the first report on the isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from goats in Chongqing. This study also revealed a prevalence of Mycoplasma species infection in goats in this area.