Accurate tide height is crucial for the safe navigation of large deep-draft ships when they enter and leave the port. We have proposed an accurate forecasting method for the tide heights from the observation data and neural networks, which can easily calculate the tidal window period of large deep-draft ships’ navigation through long channels at high tide. Moreover, an artificial neural network is established for the tide height from the observation of tide heights before their current time node. For an ideal forecast, the neural network was optimized for one year with the tide height data of Huanghua Port. In case of large ships, their tidal characteristics of channels for are complex. A new method is proposed for the observation of multiple stations and artificial neural networks of each observation station. When ships are navigating through the port, the tide height is predicted from the observed data and forecast tide heights of multiple observation stations. Thus, a valid tidal window period is secured when the ships enter the port. Comparative analysis of the ship’s tidal window period with that of the measured one can lead us to conclude that the forecasted data has a strong correlation with the measurement. So, our proposed algorithm can accurately predict the tide height and calculate the node timing when the ship enters and depart the port. Finally, these results can be applied for the safe navigation of large deep-draft ships when the port is at high tide.
Marián Putiš, Yue-Heng Yang, Tomáš Vaculovič, Matúš Koppa, Xian-Hua Li and Pavel Uher
Perovskite (Prv) was discovered in an abyssal harzburgite from a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge of the Western Carpathians (Meliata Unit, Slovakia). Perovskite-1 formation in serpentinized orthopyroxene may be simplified by the mass-balance reaction: Ca2Si2O6 (Ca-pyroxene-member)+2Fe2TiO4 (ulvöspinel molecule in spinel)+2H2O+O2=2CaTiO3 (Prv)+2SiO2+4FeOOH (goethite). Perovskite-2 occurs in a chlorite-rich blackwall zone separating serpentinite and rodingite veins, and in rodingite veins alone. The bulk-rock trace-element patterns suggest negligible differences from visually and microscopically less (“core”) to strongly serpentinized harzburgite due to serpentinization and rodingitization: an enrichment in LREE(La,Ce), Cs, ±Ba, U, Nb, Pb, As, Sb, ±Nd and Li in comparison with HREE, Rb and Sr. The U/Pb perovskite ages at ~135 Ma are interpreted to record the interaction of metamorphic fluids with harzburgite blocks in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge. Our LA-ICP-MS mineral study provides a complex view on trace element behaviour during the two stages of rodingitization connected with Prv genesis. The positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, Pb, As, Sb, Pr and Nd in Cpx, Opx and Ol are combined with the negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr in these minerals. The similar positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, ±Be, As, Sb found in typical serpentinization and rodingitization minerals, with variable contents of La, Ce and Nd, and negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr suggest involvement of crustal fluids during MP-LP/LT accretionary wedge metamorphism. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv-1 to Prv-2, and a typically negative Eu (and Ti) anomaly for Prv-1, while a positive Eu (and Ti) anomaly for Prv-2. Our multi-element diagram depicts enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, As, Sb, Pr, Nd and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. In general, both Prv generations are very close to the end-member composition. In spite of low concentrations of isomorphic constituents, Prv-1 and Prv-2 display the A(La,Ce)3++B(Fe,Cr)3+=ACa2++BTi4+ heterovalent couple substitution. A decrease of ferric iron in Prv-2 indicates increasing reduction conditions during rodingitization.
Renchao Yang, A.J. (Tom) van Loon, Wei Yin, Aiping Fan and Zuozhen Han
The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China).
The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.
The dredger fill of Shanghai Hengsha Island Dongtan is solidified by curing agents with different fly ash content, and the shear strength index of solidified dredger fill is measured by the direct shear test. The microscopic images of solidified dredger fill are obtained by using SEM. The microscopic images are processed and analyzed by using IPP, and the fractal dimension including particle size fractal dimension Dps, aperture fractal dimension Dbs and particle surface fractal dimension Dpr is calculated by fractal theory. The quantitative analysis of the relationship between shear strength index and fractal dimension of solidified dredger fill is done. The research results show that the internal friction angle and the cohesion are closely related to the fly ash content λ and the curing period T, and the addition of fly ash can improve the effect of curing agent; There is no obvious linear relationship between the internal friction angle and the three fractal dimensions; The smaller particle surface fractal dimension Dpr and particle size fractal dimension Dps, the larger aperture fractal dimension Dbs, the greater the cohesion, and the cohesion has a good linear relationship with three fractal dimensions, and the correlation coefficient R2 is above 0.91.
Truck arrival management (TAM) has been recognized as an effective solution to alleviate the gate congestion at container terminals. To further utilize TAM in improving the overall terminal performance, this study integrates TAM with the other terminal operations at a tactical level. An integrated planning model and a sequential planning model are presented to coordinate the major terminal planning activities, including quayside berth allocation, yard storage space allocation and TAM. A heuristic-based genetic algorithm is developed to solve the models. A range of numerical examinations are performed to compare two planning models. The result shows that: the integrated model can improve the terminal performance significantly from the sequential model alone, particularly when the gate capacity and the yard capacity are relatively low; whereas the sequential model is more efficient than the integrated model in terms of computational time.
Jin Huang, Wunian Yang, Li Peng and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
The amount of eco-water resources reflects the land surface water conservation capability, and the underlying surface condition in the hydrologic cycle. In the upper Minjiang River Basin, the amounts of eco-water resources were retrieved from remotely sensed data during 1992 to 2005. Through regression analysis between the retrieved eco-water data and the climate hydrological data mainly including the temperature, the precipitation, and the runoff in the same period, the model of eco-water driving force affecting the evolvement of runoff was established. The accuracy analysis indicates that the model can well describe the relationship between dry season runoff and its driven factors, the measured data validation proves that the model has high precision and good practicability. The eco-water remote sensing inversion provides a valid method to quantify the land surface water conservation capability, and suggests an interesting approach for the driving function quantitative researches of underlying surface factor in the hydrologic cycle.
Yang Lua, Liping Suna, Jichuan Kanga and Xinyue Zhang
In future, offshore wind turbines may be consider a crucial part in the supply of energy. Maintenance processes are directed to attain a safe and reliable operation of offshore machines and wind turbines. In this paper, an opportunistic maintenance strategy for offshore wind turbine is proposed, considering imperfect maintenance and the preventive maintenance durations. Reliability Centric Maintenance serves as a proactive tactic to operations and maintenance by inhibiting the possible reasons of poor performance and controlling failures. Other components can implement the opportunistic preventive maintenances if one component has reached its reliability threshold. According to the rolling horizon approach, it is of great importance to update the maintenance planning for the sake of the short-term information. By figuring out the best combination, the maintenance schedule in the mission time has been finally determined. Failure information are obtained from previous studies to accomplish the calculations. The outcomes indicate that the maintenance cost has been dramatically reduced through the application of opportunistic maintenance.
Na-Na Yang, Tian-You Zhao, Ji-Guang Gu and Zhi-Peng Chen
It is clear that the advantages of fibre glass-reinforced plastics surpass those of steel, but the failure analysis of composite structures is much more complex than that of isotropic materials as composite materials may fail in a variety of ways. In order to simulate the damage and fracture of bolted joints of fibre reinforced composite, the bond-based peridynamic method suitable for elastic, brittle and anisotropic characteristics of composite material is used. The peridynamic model for composite laminate is validated by the finite element method. Then a peridynamic program of composite damage is applied to calculating the damage of bolted joint structure and the damage propagation process and failure mode of the structure is obtained.
Guang-Quan Chen, Liang Yi, Xing-Yong Xu, Hong-Jun Yu, Jian-Rong Cao, Qiao Su, Lin-Hai Yang, Yong-Hang Xu, Jun-Yi Ge and Zhong-Ping Lai
It has been suggested that the standardized growth curve (SGC) method can be used to accurately determinate equivalent dose (De) and reduce measurement time. However, different opinions regarding the applicability of the SGC method exist. In this paper, we evaluated quartz OSL SGCs of marine and coastal sediments of different grain sizes and different cores in the south Bohai Sea in China, and tested their applicability to the determination of De values. Our results suggested as follows: (1) The SGC method is applicable to both multiple- and single-aliquot regenerative-dose (MAR and SAR) protocols of OSL dating and efficiently provides reliable estimates of De. (2) Finesand quartz of different palaeodoses showed highly similar dose-response curves and an SGC was developed, but old samples using the SGC method have large uncertainties. (3) For coarse-silt quartz, two different types of dose-response curves were recorded: low-dose (≤60Gy) and high-dose (≥100Gy). The growth curves of low-dose quartz were similar to each other, facilitating the use of SGC in De estimations, but errors tended to be larger than those obtained in the SAR method. For high-dose (100–300Gy) quartz, the SGC was also found to be reliable, but there was large uncertainty in De (>300Gy) estimation. We suggest that SGC could be employed for the dating of marine and coastal sediments dating using either MAR or SAR OSL protocol and either fine-silt, coarse-silt or fine-sand quartz.