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  • Author: Michał Jankowski x
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Builders and Users of Ritual Centres, Yampil Barrow Complex: Studies of Diet Based on Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Composition


The paper presents δ13C and δ15N isotope content measurements in human bones from 16 graves, being part of the Yampil Barrow Complex. From the results, conclusions may be drawn about the diet of barrow builders and users. It was based on vegetable foodstuffs and characterised by a varied share of terrestrial animal meat, depending on the period. High δ13C values suggest a share of C4-type plants in the diet, possibly millet.

Open access
Selected aspects of endometritis – pyometra complex in dogs – current troubles and treatment perspectives


Pyometra is the most common gynecological disease in female dogs. It usually occurs in middle age female dogs, usually about two months after the completion of heat. This disease is the accumulation of purulent fluid inside the uterus. Etiology of pyometra is not fully understood. It is assumed, that pyometra is a result of hormonal disorders in the endometrium combined with bacterial superinfection. The diagnosis is based on the interview, clinical examination, additional laboratory tests and ultrasound or x-ray of the abdomen. There are two treatments: ovariohysterectomy and conservative treatment with pharmacological agents for example prostaglandin, aglepriston, antibiotics with a broad spectrum of action. Currently conducted molecular studies have a large influence on the development of the present knowledge on the pathogenesis and course of pyometra, whose conclusions may be used to change the current therapeutic protocols.

Open access
Detection of lipoprotein X (LPX) – a challenge in patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia



Lipoprotein X (LpX) is an abnormal lipoprotein fraction, which can be detected in patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia and cholestatic liver disease. LpX is composed largely of phospholipid and free cholesterol, with small amounts of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester and protein. There are no widely available methods for direct measurement of LpX in routine laboratory practice. We present the heterogeneity of clinical and laboratory manifestations of the presence of LpX, a phenomenon which hinders LpX detection.


The study was conducted on a 26-year-old female after liver transplantation (LTx) with severely elevated total cholesterol (TC) of 38 mmol/L and increased cholestatic liver enzymes. TC, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE), triglycerides, phospholipids, HDL-C, LDL-C, and apolipoproteins AI and B were measured. TC/apoB and FC:CE ratios were calculated. Lipoprotein electrophoresis was performed using a commercially available kit and laboratory-prepared agarose gel.


Commercially available electrophoresis failed to demonstrate the presence of LpX. Laboratory-prepared gel clearly revealed the presence of lipoproteins with γ mobility, characteristic of LpX. The TC/apoB ratio was elevated and the CE level was reduced, confirming the presence of LpX. Regular lipoprotein apheresis was applied as the method of choice in LpX disease and a bridge to reLTx due to chronic liver insufficiency.


The detection of LpX is crucial as it may influence the method of treatment. As routinely available biochemical laboratory tests do not always indicate the presence of LpX, in severe hypercholesterolaemia with cholestasis, any discrepancy between electrophoresis and biochemical tests should raise suspicions of LpX disease.

Open access
Cation homeostasis and transport related gene markers are differentially expressed in porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells during long-term cells primary culture in vitro


The mucous membrane is composed of two layers. The layer of stratified squamous epithelium and the underlying layer of the connective tissue. The epithelium is composed of keratinocytes that are in different stages of differentiation, depending on their localization. In our research, after isolation of primary in vitro cultured buccal pouch mucosal cells, we observed keratinocytes in various stages of differentiation and fibroblasts. These cells, depending on the ionic dynamics, may be subject to different morphological and biochemical transformations. Understanding the expression profile of the normal oral mucosal tissue is important for further research into the effects of biomaterials on the mucosal cells, their growth, proliferation, and differentiation.

The porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells were used in this study. The oral mucosa was separated surgically and isolated enzymatically. The cells were in vitro cultured for 30 days, and after each step of in vitro culture (7 days, 15 days, 30 days), samples were collected for isolation of total RNA. The gene expression profile was measured using Affymetrix microarray assays.

In results, we observed genes belonging to two ontology groups: cation homeostasis and cation transport. These genes were up-regulated after 7 days of in vitro culture as compared to down-regulation after 15 and 30 days of in vitro culture. These results suggested that dynamic growth, proliferation and cell adhesion are more intense in the first 7 days of in vitro culture. We also observed, for the first time, the expression of ATP13A3 in porcine oral mucosal cells.

Open access
Ion homeostasis and transport are regulated by genes differentially expressed in porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells during long-term culture in vitro – a microarray approach


The oral mucosa is a compound tissue composed of several cells types, including fibroblasts and keratinocytes, that are characterized by different morphology, as well as biochemical and metabolomic properties. The oral mucosal cells are the most important factors mediated between transport and drugs delivery. The changes in cellular ion homeostasis may significantly affect the bioavailability of administrated drugs and their transport across the mucous membrane. Therefore we investigated the expression profile of genes involved in ion transport and homeostasis in porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells.

The oral mucosa was separated surgically and isolated enzymatically. The cells were examined during long-term in vitro culture (IVC). The cultured cells were collected at 7, 15 and 30 days of IVC and subsequently transferred to RNA isolation and next, the gene expression profile was measured using Affymetrix microarray assays.

In the results, we can extract genes belonging to four ontology groups: “ion homeostasis”, “ion transport”, “metal ion transport”, and “inorganic ion homeostasis”. For TGFB1 and CCL2, we observed up-regulation after 7 days of IVC, down-regulation after 15 days of IVC and upregulation again after 30 days of IVC. The ATP13A3, ATP1B1, CCL8, LYN, STEAP1, PDPN, PTGS2, and SLC5A3genes showed high activity after day 7 of IVC, and in the days 15 and 30 of IVC showed low activity.

We showed an expression profile of genes associated with the effects of ion influence on the porcine normal oral mucosal cell development in IVC. These studies may be the starting point for further research into oral diseases and will allow for the comparison of the gene expression profile of normal and disease altered cells.

Open access
Does migrative and proliferative capability of epithelial cells reflect cellular developmental competence?


Mammalian epithelial and epithelial-like cells are significantly involved in various processes associated with tissue development, differentiation and oncogenesis. Because of that, high number of research is focused on identifying cells that express stem-like or progenitor characteristics. Identifying such cells and recognizing their specific markers, would open new clinical opportunities in transplantology and oncology. There are several epithelia characterized by their ability to rapidly proliferate and/or differentiate. Due to their function or location they are subject to cyclic changes involving processes of apoptosis and regeneration. Literature presenting well-structured studies of these types of epithelia was analyzed in order to compare various results and establish if epithelial cells’ migrative and proliferative ability indicates their stemness potential. Endometrial, ovarian, oviductal and oral mucosal epithelia were analyzed with most of the publications delivering relatively unified results. The ability to rapidly proliferate/differentiate usually indicated the presence of some kind of stem/stem-like/progenitor cells. Most of the papers focused on pinpointing the exact location of these kind of cells, or analyzing specific markers that would be used for their future identification. There have also been substantial proportion of research that focused on discovering growth factors or intercellular signals that induced proliferation/differentiation in analyzed epithelia. Most of the research provided valuable insights into the modes of function and characteristics of the analyzed tissue, outlining the importance of such study for the possible clinical application of in vitro derived cell cultures.

Open access
Response to abiotic and organic substances stimulation belongs to ontologic groups significantly up-regulated in porcine immature oocytes


The efficiency of the process of obtaining mature oocytes, and then of porcine embryos in vitro depends on many factors and requires meeting many conditions. These include selection of morphologically appropriate oocytes, selection of appropriate medium components, as well as a number of abiotic factors (appropriate microenvironment during in vitro culture).

Oocytes were taken from 45 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts. The BCB test was carried out. BCB + oocytes were divided into two groups: “before IVM” and “after IVM”. “Before IVM” oocytes were subjected to molecular analyzes immediately after collection, while “after IVM” oocytes underwent in vitro maturation and then the second BCB test. Oocytes that remained BCB+ after the second test were used for molecular analyzes using Affymetrix expression microarrays.

A group of genes responsible for response to organic substance and response to abiotic stimulus, which underwent significant changes (decrease) was discovered after oocyte in vitro maturation. Genes such as MM, PLDP, SERPINH, MYOF, DHX9, HSPA5, VCP, KIT, SERPINH1, PLD1, and VCP showed the largest decrease after the culture period. The levels of these genes were therefore elevated in oocytes before the in vitro maturation process.

In conclusion, a number of organic and abiotic factors have an impact on the process of the oocyte in vitro maturation. The presented results confirm the literature data in which the low efficiency of obtaining mature oocytes in in vitro conditions is mentioned, which further impacts the amount of viable embryos obtained.

Open access
Polish Soil Classification, 6th edition – principles, classification scheme and correlations


The sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) aims to maintain soil classification in Poland as a modern scientific system that reflects current scientific knowledge, understanding of soil functions and the practical requirements of society. SGP6 continues the tradition of previous editions elaborated upon by the Soil Science Society of Poland in consistent application of quantitatively characterized diagnostic horizons, properties and materials; however, clearly referring to soil genesis. The present need to involve and name the soils created or naturally developed under increasing human impact has led to modernization of the soil definition. Thus, in SGP6, soil is defined as the surface part of the lithosphere or the accumulation of mineral and organic materials permanently connected to the lithosphere (through buildings or permanent constructions), coming from weathering or accumulation processes, originated naturally or anthropogenically, subject to transformation under the influence of soil-forming factors, and able to supply living organisms with water and nutrients. SGP6 distinguishes three hierarchical categories: soil order (nine in total), soil type (basic classification unit; 30 in total) and soil subtype (183 units derived from 62 unique definitions; listed hierarchically, separately in each soil type), supplemented by three non-hierarchical categories: soil variety (additional pedogenic or lithogenic features), soil genus (lithology/parent material) and soil species (soil texture). Non-hierarchical units have universal definitions that allow their application in various orders/types, if all defined requirements are met. The paper explains the principles, classification scheme and rules of SGP6, including the key to soil orders and types, explaining the relationships between diagnostic horizons, materials and properties distinguished in SGP6 and in the recent edition of WRB system as well as discussing the correlation of classification units between SGP6, WRB and Soil Taxonomy.

Open access