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Open access

Qin Zhou, Yu-feng Gao, Xiao-miao Zhao, Fa-ming Pan and Xu Li

Abstract

Objective To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a Chinese Han population.

Methods Total of 501 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 301 controls with selflimiting HBV infection were studied. Three tag SNPs in the IL-4 gene (rs2227284G/T, rs2243283C/G and rs2243288A/G) were genotyped by the Multiplex snapshot technique. The genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and analyzed.

Results The three SNPs showed no significant genotype/allele associations with chronic HBV infection. Overall allele P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.655, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.070 (0.793-1.445); rs2243283, P = 0.849, OR (95% CI) = 0.976 (0.758-1.257); rs2243288, P = 0.659, OR (95% CI) = 1.060 (0.818-1.375). Overall genotype P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.771; rs2243283, P = 0.571; rs2243288, P = 0.902. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with chronic HBV infection and controls. Haplotypes generated by these three SNPs also had no significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusions The three tag SNPs of IL-4 were not associated with the outcome of HBV infection in the Han Chinese population.

Open access

Dadji Stéphane Serge Bonny, Xin Li, Zheng Li, Meng Li, Manting Du, Lingling Gao and Dequan Zhang

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the colour stability and lipid oxidation of beef under different packaging methods. The muscles longissimus lumborum were randomly packed in vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 80% O2, 20% CO2). Both packages were aged at 4°C for 7, 14 and 21 days. After each ageing time, samples were displayed in a refrigerator for 2, 4 and 6 days. Colour stability, lipid oxidation and their correlation were determined. Beef under vacuum packaging showed higher a* values on 7, 14, and 21 days of ageing and lower L* values on 14 and 21 days of ageing than beef in MAP (p<0.05). Lower a* values were observed in the samples packed in MAP, then displayed compared to samples packed in vacuum, then displayed after 21 days of ageing time on day 2, 4 and 6 of the display period (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased significantly in MAP compared to vacuum during 7, 14, and 21 days of ageing (p<0.05). An increase of TBARS was also observed during display after 14 and 21 days of ageing in samples packed in MAP, then displayed. Furthermore, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between samples packed in MAP and vacuum in peroxide value on 14 days of ageing. Lipid oxidation was observed mainly in the samples packed in MAP compared to vacuum, and positively correlated with results on colour stability.

Open access

Xinran Li, Renli Jiang, Guanying Wang, Yue Li, Xiaojing Fan, Xu Liu, Jinglu Wang, Jialiang Pan and Li Gao

Abstract

The study was conducted on 24 Mongolian horses, with oligofructose-induced equine laminitis (10 g/kg b.w.). The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships among matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (P38 MAPK), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) during acute developmental phase of laminitis, and to determine whether there are any characteristic tendencies. Moreover, plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were measured in order to determine the time of leukocytes’ activation. Eleven of the 12 horses showed clinical signs of laminitis. The contents of MMP-2 and P38 MAPK increased significantly from 8 h to 64 h, and the content of TIMP-2 decreased significantly at the same time. Plasma LPS concentrations increased significantly between 8 h and 20 h and reached a peak of 0.024 ± 0.009 EU/mL (equivalent to 3.04 ± 1.19 pg/mL) at 12 h. TNF-α concentration increased between 20 h and 36 h. This data indicates that MMP-2 plays an important role during the early acute developmental phase of oligofructose-induced equine laminitis.

Open access

Yin Bai-Shuang, Li Gao, Fu Lian-Jun, Fu Ying, Sha Wan-Li, Li Guo-Jiang and Wang Hong-Bin

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess whether atipamezole can restrain telazol/xylazine induced expression of c-fos in the rat brain. Rats were injected with a mixture of 13.81 mg/kg telazol and 5.21 mg/kg xylazine, following 10 min later 0.522 mg/kg atipamezole. Thereon, the thalamencephal and cerebral cortex were removed one hour after the last injection. The level of Fos protein was measured in the brain tissue by Westernblot. The results revealed that atipamezole attenuates telazol/xylazine induction of c-fos expression in the thalamencephal and cerebral cortex. The results indicated that atipamezole is able to inhibit telazol/xylazine-induced c-fos expression in the rat brain, thus protecting it from nerve damage.

Open access

Renli Jiang, Li Gao, Guanying Wang, Xinran Li, Yue Li, Xiaojing Fan, Xu Liu, Jinglu Wang, Yu Zhang, Xiangxing Kong and Jianhua Xiao

Abstract

Horses (n = 20) were divided into 2 groups: oligofructose (OF)-induced equine laminitis group (group OF; n = 11) which received 10 g/kg b.w. of OF dissolved in 4 L water via nasogastric intubation, and control group (NS; n = 9) which received 4 L of saline. Blood was collected at 4 h intervals over 72 h study period and analysed by ELISA, kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, and glucose-oxidase methods. The level of insulin changed significantly in horses which received OF (P < 0.01); there was a significant negative correlation between the level of adiponectin and insulin over time. The results suggested that insulin may play an important role in the development of OF-induced equine laminitis by altering the level of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide.

Open access

Tian-wen Ma, Yue Li, Guan-ying Wang, Xin-ran Li, Ren-li Jiang, Xiao-peng Song, Zhi-heng Zhang, Hui Bai, Xin Li and Li Gao

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed to clarify the changes in the concentration of inflammatory mediators, proteases, and cartilage degradation biomarkers in the synovial fluid of joints in an equine osteoarthritis model.

Material and Methods: Osteoarthritis was induced in eight Mongolian horses by a sterile intra-articular injection of amphotericin B, which was injected into the left carpal joint in a dose of 2 mL (25 mg/mL). The control group comprised five horses which were injected with an equal dose of sterile physiological saline into the left carpal joint. Synovial fluid was obtained at baseline and every week after injection. Test methods were based on ELISA.

Results: In the course of the osteoarthritis, the concentration of biomarkers in joint synovial fluid showed an increasing trend. IL-1, IL-6, MMP-9, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, CS846, GAG, HA, CTX-II, and COMP concentrations sharply increased before the onset of significant symptoms of lameness, whereas TNF-α, MMP-2, and MMP-3 concentrations rose sharply after the occurrence of such symptoms.

Conclusion: The results obtained confirm that the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, MMP-9, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, CS846, GAG, HA, CTX-II and COMP increase substantially in equine osteoarthritis, which provides a theoretical basis for the rapid diagnosis of the disease.

Open access

Yi-Ming Zhang, Dong-Xu Yu, Bai-Shuang Yin, Xin-Ran Li, Li-Na Li, Ya-Nan Li, Yu-Xin Wang, Yu Chen, Wen-Han Liu and Li Gao

Abstract

Introduction: Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.

Material and Methods: Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35 μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results: During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.

Conclusion: The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.

Open access

Yun-ru Li, Feng-xin Chen, Xue-fei Duan, Xue-song Gao and Xiao-ling Fan

Abstract

A 50-year-old man with ankylosing spondylitis was treated successfully with infliximab, who was also a HBV carrier for about twenty five years. After injection with infliximab for four times, he developed jaundice and HBV DNA was detectable in serum. Serum aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels were higher than normal. Then he was hospitalized and treated with entacavir and Chinese herb medicine. But his liver damage aggravated and was diagnosed as acute on chronic liver failure. Finally, liver transplantation was carried out and he was cured successfully.

Open access

Haifeng Huang, Huajiang Ouyang, Hongli Gao, Liang Guo, Dan Li and Juan Wen

Abstract

Detection of incipient degradation demands extracting sensitive features accurately when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is very poor, which appears in most industrial environments. Vibration signals of rolling bearings are widely used for bearing fault diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method that combines Blind Source Separation (BSS) and Spectral Kurtosis (SK) to separate independent noise sources. Normal, and incipient fault signals from vibration tests of rolling bearings are processed. We studied 16 groups of vibration signals (which all display an increase in kurtosis) of incipient degradation after they are processed by a BSS filter. Compared with conventional kurtosis, theoretical studies of SK trends show that the SK levels vary with frequencies and some experimental studies show that SK trends of measured vibration signals of bearings vary with the amount and level of impulses in both vibration and noise signals due to bearing faults. It is found that the peak values of SK increase when vibration signals of incipient faults are processed by a BSS filter. This pre-processing by a BSS filter makes SK more sensitive to impulses caused by performance degradation of bearings.

Open access

Cheng-bao Wang, Jian-jie Chen, Hong-ming Nie, Feng Gao, Hua Lv and Hong-ding Li

Abstract

Objective This study was undertaken to investigate the influencing factors on serum ALT level and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA titer in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients.

Methods All patients enrolled into this study were anti-HCV positive. Retrospective tracing method was applied to detect serum ALT level and HCV RNA titer and to collect general information of the patients such as genders, age groups, interferon medication history, infection pathways, height and weight. Then the multi-factor analysis was adopted with the application of binominal logistic regression mode.

Results The abnormal rate of ALT level was positively correlated to HCV RNA and gender while negatively correlated to interferon medication history and age group, with Wald value of the 4 factors as 39.604, 11.823, 18.991 and 7.389, respectively. The positive rate of HCV RNA was negatively correlated to interferon medication history and gender while positively correlated to ALT level, with corresponding Wald value of the 3 factors as 81.394, 7.618 and 27.562, respectively.

Conclusions The normal ALT level in HCV infected patients was associated with viral load, age, gender and interferon medication history, while the normal rate of HCV RNA titer was closely associated with gender, interferon medication history and ALT level.