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  • Author: Codrut Sarafoleanu x
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Epistaxis management - our point of view and literature review


Nasal haemorrhage or epistaxis is the most common otolaryngologic emergency. It affects about 60% of the population and a percentage of 6% do not cease spontaneously, medical approach being needed.

The management of epistaxis varies depending on its severity and etiology. The therapeutic conduct of this ENT emergency is based on three main principles: 1. local haemostasis; 2. detection and ceasing of the cause; 3. evaluation and correction of hypovolemia if necessary. Haemostasis can be done by chemical or electric cauterisation after identifying the bleeding source, by nasal packing, by endoscopic or external surgery or, in special cases, when none of the above methods returns any results, embolization. The current paper emphasizes our experience and a brief literature concerning epistaxis management in patients presented in the Emergency Room, in chronic cases of vascular intranasal tumors with recurrent bleeding, in iatrogenic haemorrhages, and none of the least we will bring into discussion the treatment applied for patients diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

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Difficulties of olfactometric evaluation in patients accusing smell disorders after head trauma


Head trauma is considered to be the third cause of olfactory function disorders. Olfactometric assessment in patients accusing anosmia following head injury produced by car accident or aggression is important, because most of them are involved in law trials in order to obtain financial compensations from the author. It is compulsory to use both subjective and objective olfactory evaluation methods combined with a detailed anamnesis, a complete ENT examination and a good cranio-facial imaging (computed tomography or MRI) in order to exclude malingerers and to obtain an accurate diagnosis.

“Sfanta Maria” ENT Department from Bucharest is the only center in Romania where the olfactory function in completely investigated. We use chemosensory (Snap and Sniff Test and n-Butanol Dynamic Olfactometry) and electrophysiological tests (electric olfactory evoked potentials of the olfactory bulb).

Unfortunately, we confront with a series of difficulties in what concerns the smell function evaluation: 1) there is scarce information in the literature regarding the olfactory electric evoked potentials; 2) the electric olfactory evoked potentials register only the electrical activity in the olfactory bulb; 3) in case of olfactory impairment medically confirmed, we cannot establish a cause-effect relationship between the disturbance and the event; 4) the most accurate electrophysiological assessment method currently available in Europe is the time-frequency analysis of chemosensory event-related potentials, but we do not dispose of the necessary equipment yet; 5) sometimes patients do not give us the informed consent for a complete olfactory evaluation.

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Frontal sinus osteoma
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Treatment difficulties in salivary gland cancer


Salivary gland cancers are represented by a heterogeneous histologic group of tumors, with low incidence, which may appear both in major and minor salivary glands. This article presents a review of the difficulties which may be encountered in this pathology during the treatment. The diagnosis of salivary gland cancers is often delayed, due to the histopathologic and immunohistochemistry results given in different period of times. There can be several difficulties in following the oncologic pre-treatment protocols, in terms of imaging technique, as MRI, useful for disease staging.

The treatment of salivary gland cancers is complex, due to the local anatomy and their aggressive potential. Because of their decreased incidence, there are few data that investigate the treatment in the case of these diseases. The current therapy available for the patients with salivary gland cancers is represented by complete surgical resection. Several treatment difficulties in cancers of the salivary glands may come from the surgical limitations and the insufficient data for adjuvant and palliative treatment. Due to the limitations of the local health system, there is a heterogeneous distribution of the oncologic centers, lack of equipment, prolonged time to follow general protocols, despite the aspect of case-individualized therapy according to the guidelines. We must not forget the tumor behaviour and individual reactivity of different patients to the same treatment protocol.

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Polysomnography outcomes on patients with obstructive sleep apnea after upper airways repermeabilization surgery


BACKGROUND. Sleep apnea is a pathology with an ever-increasing spread, the causes being the most diverse. In this study we focus on sleep breathing disorders caused by nasal obstruction and also by soft palate and uvula anatomical changes. The right treatment recommended in this pathology according to the American Academy Sleep Medicine (AASM) is non-invasive ventilation – positive airway pressure (CPAP). A substantial percentage of patients with obstructive sleep apnea seek alternatives to CPAP and the solution for this can be upper airway surgery.

OBJECTIVE. The attempt to demonstrate the viability of upper respiratory tract surgery as an alternative to CPAP treatment, demonstrating objectives by pre- and postoperative polysomnographic control.

RESULTS. Aggregating the data from all 54 patients with nasal obstruction and pharyngeal modifications, we observed a decrease in AHI from 20.406/h to 15.86/h, representing 32.36%, an improvement in sleep architecture and especially REM sleep from 41.5 minutes initially to 67.8 minutes (increased value with 63.37 percent).

CONCLUSION. The benefits of nasopharyngeal repermeabilization surgery are represented by decreasing the severity of respiratory events and, second to this, lowering the number of arousals. By reducing the number of arousals, one will obtain a better percentage regarding the deep sleep phase - REM, having a beneficial effect on reducing the daytime sleepiness – which is a major symptom that patients are present.

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Evolution of microbial etiology in acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and its role in the current management of antibiotic treatment


BACKGROUND. Acute and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are common conditions worldwide. In most cases, the etiology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is viral, but there can be cases complicated by bacterial infection. The bacterial pathogens responsible for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) in most cases are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Moraxella catarrhalis. In recent years, some changes regarding this issue have been communicated. Also, the pathophysiology of CRS becomes a problem due to the increasing percentage of resistant or recurrent cases.

OBJECTIVE. To identify the bacterial spectrum in patients diagnosed with ABRS and CRS and to establish the actual resistance rates of the most prescribed antibiotics for these affections in order to initiate the correct antibiotic treatment.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a prospective study on 40 adult patients with ABRS and 70 patients with CRS. The standard microbiological procedures were performed in order to identify the involved microorganisms. The Antibiotic Susceptibility Test of the clinical isolates was performed to routinely used antibiotics according to EUCAST.

RESULT. ABRS: A total of 21 types of pathogenic bacteria were isolated. The results indicated changes in the percentages of the traditionally involved bacteria, other species of streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus representing important pathogens. Almost half of the samples were polymicrobial. CRS: 12 bacteria were incriminated for CRS, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequently identified pathogens. Regarding the antibiotic treatment, we established that in our country the resistance rates are higher than the ones communicated by WHO (especially for macrolides) and the fluoroquinolones seem to be the class with the highest safety profile.

CONCLUSION. Study results demonstrate some changes of the bacteriologic spectrum in ABRS in this geographic area. The pathogens responsible for CRS are found in approximately the same percentage as presented in other studies. Antibiotic treatment demands attention considering the increasing trend of antibiotic resistance of the bacteria causing ABRS and CRS.

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Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: the relationship with nasal allergy


Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) is a common event in clinical practice. The authors, all members of the Italian Society of Rhinology, analysed 100 cases from different ENT Departments. The causes of NLDO, according to the etiology, can be divided into two classes: idiopathic primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and secondary. The aim of the study was to describe an association between the sign and symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis and a complaint of epiphora.

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Schneiderian membrane adult vasculogenesis evaluated by CD31 and CD34 expression and morphological arrangement


Background. Few studies approached the process of blood vessels formation in the Schneiderian membrane. We aimed at investigating by immunohistochemistry the processes that are responsible for forming new blood vessels in the human Schneiderian membrane.

Material and methods. We applied CD31 and CD34 markers on bioptic samples gathered from eight adult patients negative for malignant pathologies. Filopodia-projecting endothelial tip cells (ETCs) were found and indicated processes of sprouting angiogenesis. Also, CD31-expressing monocyte-derived cells were found being involved in processes of vasculogenesis. These cells were projecting filopodia, thus being assessed as endothelial progenitor tip cells (EpTCs). Aggregates of CD31+ EpTCs were also analyzed. Further stages of lumen acquisition and large diameter vessels formation, specific for vasculogenesis, were evaluated.

Results. It resulted that, specifically within the maxillary sinus mucosa, vascular remodelling is equally ensured by adult vasculogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis.

Conclusion. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of adult vasculogenesis in the maxillary sinus mucosa, supported by bona fide bone marrow-derived CD31+ cells. The guidance mechanism of EpTCs protrusions needs further investigations for finding similarities, or dissimilarities, with the endothelial tip cells prolongations.

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The role of PLUNC proteins in the etiopathogeny of chronic rhinosinusitis


BACKGROUND. Innate immunity represents the first way of protection against different pathogenic agents. Recently, it has been a permanent interest regarding an innate immune molecule, that is known as palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC). PLUNC is a specific result found in the airways, of approximately 25 kDa, whose encoding is realized by adjacent genes located within a region of 300 kb in chromosome 20; these proteins must be detected predominantly in the superior respiratory tract.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a prospective clinical study on 34 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 10 controls, in order to investigate the expression of this protein in nasal tissue of patients affected by chronic rhinosinusitis. We tested the correlation between the existence of this disease and PLUNC proteins positivity.

RESULTS. 100% of controls have a+++ rated PLUNC proteins positivity, while cases have a lower percentage of positivity. There were no differences statistically significant between patients with CRSwNP and those with CRSsNP.

CONCLUSION. As a response to different irritating agents (bacteria, viruses, chemical factors), nasal mucosa will react by producing PLUNC proteins. PLUNC proteins have a defensive role in the upper airways mucosa.

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Transnasal endoscopy – Evaluation and treatment method for patients with sinus lift and dental implants indications


BACKGORUND. Sinus floor elevation, also known as sinus lift, is the surgical procedure meant to elevate the maxillary floor in order to increase the height of the alveolar bone. This will allow the oral surgeon specialist to insert the desired implants, the ground of dental reconstruction. As the procedure involves the maxillary sinus and its Schneiderian membrane the main concern is to have a healthy maxillary sinus prior to implantation and to the maxillary augmentation.

OBJECTIVE. The aim of our study was to identify the patients with abnormal CT scan and refer them to an ENT evaluation, in order to identify and treat any sinusal pathology that can lead to a poor outcome of the sinus-lift intervention.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Our prospective study included 15 patients selected from a group of 79 adults, candidates for dental implantation with sinus augmentation. These patients had abnormal sinus CT scan in terms of mucosal hypertrophy, cysts or fungal material. Transnasal diameatic sinusoscopy was performed for all the patients, assessing the aspect of the sinus cavity and the mucosa. The following abnormal aspects were found in our group: 5 patients with cysts, 2 patients with fungus ball and 4 with mucosal hypertrophy. 4 patients had normal maxillary mucosa despite the CT scan appearance.

RESULTS. All the patients with abnormal aspects at sinusoscopy (11 patients) were operated on before sinus lift procedure - antrostomy, cyst removal, fungus ball removal. 4 patients showed normal aspect of the sinus mucosa despite the CT scan donations, meaning a 26.66% error rate in appreciating the real changes of the maxillary mucosa on the CT scan.

CONCLUSION. Endoscopic assessment of the maxillary sinus is mandatory in patients with changes of the CT scan. This allows a proper examination of the sinus mucosa and can predict the outcomes of the sinus lift procedures. It is mandatory to cure the inflammation or infection of the maxillary sinus prior to implant procedure in order to be able to increase the success rate, as it can lead to failures of the implant procedure.

Open access