Linhai Yang, Zhongping Lai, Hao Long and Jingran Zhang
It has been suggested that the standardised growth curve (SGC) method can be used to de-terminate De accurately and reduce the measurement time. However, different opinions regarding the applicability of the SGC method exist. In this paper, we report the construction of quartz OSL SGC for 35 aeolian samples from different parts of the Horqin dunefield in northeastern China, and then test their applicability for De determination. Our results suggest that: 1) up to a regeneration dose of 80 Gy, the SGC of the Horqin dunefield can be fitted using the exponential plus linear equation, with the r2 value of 0.97, and all the regeneration dose points closely stick to the fitting line, implying that all samples share a very similar dose-response curve; 2) for samples with Des ranging from 1 to 50 Gy, the ratios of SAR De to SGC De fall within the range of 0.9–1.1, and the average ratio of SAR De to SGC De is 1.01±0.01, close to unity. Therefore, the construction of SGC is correct, and the SGC is an effective procedure for accurate De determination for samples from the study area.
Huili Yang, Jie Chen, Naomi Porat, Tao Li, Wenqiao Li and Weipeng Xiao
Optical dating of earthquake related sediments were investigated including one modern sample and three samples from a trench excavated across the 1985 Ms7.4 Wuqia Earthquake surface rupture. The results indicated that equivalent dose (De) values vary with grain size and the method used for De determination. The residual dose of the modern sample is 0.1 ka (
Gy) for the quartz single grain measurements. Only 1.5–3.6% of the grains have a detectable OSL signal. Single grain quartz ages are similar to the expected ages. Fine grain quartz results overestimate the De values and are much older than single grain quartz and coarse grain quartz small aliquot standardized growth curve (SA-SGC) ages. Single grain quartz OSL dating may be optimal for dating earthquake related deposits, but SA-SGC can save measurement time and has potential for dating some poorly bleaching samples.
Feng Chen, Yujiang Yuan, Wenshou Wei, Shulong Yu, Yang Li, Ruibo Zhang, Tongwen Zhang and Huaming Shang
Chronology Development and Climate Response Analysis of Schrenk Spruce (Picea Schrenkiana) Tree-Ring Parameters in the Urumqi River Basin, China
Seven different tree-ring parameters (total tree-ring width, earlywood width, latewood width, maximum latewood density, minimum earlywood density, average earlywood density, and average latewood density) were obtained from Schrenk spruce in the Urumqi River Basin, China. The chronologies were analyzed individually and then compared with each other. The relationships between the different tree-ring parameters and climate data (Daxigou) are also presented. Earlywood-related parameters (earlywood width, minimum density, and earlywood density) were more sensitive to climate than those of latewood. Temperature (July) was found to be the most strongly related to the earlywood density. Based on the results of climate response analysis, the potential of tree-ring chronologies from this species to provide climate reconstructions in the Urumqi River Basin has been established. This study demonstrates that the use of tree-ring density data can increase the climate information obtained from tree-ring and should lead to improved paleoclimate reconstructions in Central Asian.
In order to identify high-speed navigation ability of trimaran planing hull, as well as investigate the characteristics of its resistance and hull form, ship model tests were conducted to measure resistance, trim and heaving under different displacements and gravity centre locations. The test results were then used to study the influence of spray strips on resistance and sea-keeping qualities. Moreover, different planing surfaces were compared in the model tests which helped to look into influence of steps on hull resistance and its moving position. Also, the resistance features of monohull and trimaran planing hulls, both with and without steps, were compared to each other. From the tests it can be concluded that: the two auxiliary side hulls increase aerodynamic lift at high-speed motion, which improves the hydrodynamic performance; the trimaran planing hull has also excellent longitudinal stability and low wave-making action; when Fr∇ > 8, its motion is still stable and two distinct resistance peaks and two changes of sailing state (the second change is smaller) appear; spray strips are favourable for sea-keeping qualities at high speed. The change trends before the second resistance peak as to the resistance and sailing behaviour of trimaran planing hull without steps are the same as for monohull planing hull without steps. but when steps in both hulls exist the change trends are different; more specifically: trimaran planing hull with steps has only one resistance peak and its resistance increases along with its speed increasing, and the resistance is improved at the increasing speed as the number of steps increases.
Lu Qingzhen, Yin Yuanchao, Yang Zhixun, Chen Jinlong, Yan Jun and Yue Qianjin
The fatigue problem induced by wave loads and floater movements of dynamic umbilicals in deepwater is studied. The prediction method of the fatigue life is investigated by considering no-linear local stress due to contact and friction between components of the umbilical. A case study of a dynamic umbilical for 1500 meters depth in South China Sea was presented. The results showed that the more accurate result of the fatigue life was calculated by considering non-linear local stress. The fatigue life by considering local stress with the no-slip assumption was conservative. An obviously longer fatigue life was obtained by considering local stress with the full-slip assumption.
Wenfeng Wu, Yubin Yang, Jianwei Zhang and Jinshu Lu
Due to the great danger of the collision of oil tankers, lots of research on the collision of oil tankers has been carried out. But, at present, the research on the collision of oil tankers mainly focuses on the loading condition of the struck ship, ignores the impact on the loading condition of the striking ship. However, during the actual oil tanker collision, the striking ship is generally in the state of loading. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the analysis of the impact of the loading condition of the striking ship on the collision damage of the oil tanker. In this paper, the effect of striking ship with loading on the impact performance of the side structure during the collision of the cargo double hull oil tanker has been investigated. The ship collision model was established by using the finite element software ANSYS/LS-DYNA which is based on 7000 tons of double hull oil tankers. Based on the analysis of the collision force, impact of striking speed changes, impact of striking deep changes and structural energy absorption during the collision process, the influence of the striking ship with loading on the damage mechanism and the impact performance of the double shell oil ship side structure was expounded. The results show that the influence of the striking ship with loading can be great to the damage to side hull during the research of the collision performance of the oil tanker.
Wenlai Xu, Ju Yang, Jing Wang, Yue Jian and Min Tang
this paper studied the start-up of natural bio-film colonization under the conditions where wet-to-dry ratio was 1:6, hydraulic load was 0.8m3/m2·d, and water temperature was 10°C-15°C, it took 25d in total to become mature, after the success of bio-film colonization, the removal rate of COD and NH4+-N can be stabilized at 80%, and the removal rate of NH4+-N can reach 90% above. The microorganism was divided into the following stages during bio-film colonization: 1.Reversible adhesion of cell on the surface of the carrier, 2.Irreversible adhesion of cell on the surface of the carrier, 3.Division of cell adhering to the surface of the carrier and formation of microcolony adhering to the surface of the carrier, 4.Growth of microcolony adhering to the surface of the carrier to be mature bio-film with three-dimensional structure. The process of natural bio-film colonization can be judged comprehensively according to removal rate of NH4+-N and COD, effluent pH as well as color of microbial film.
Jian Yang, Jinfu Feng, Yongli Li, An Liu, Junhua Hu and Zongcheng Ma
In the process that the submarine-launched missile exits the water, there is the complex fluid solid coupling phenomenon. Therefore, it is difficult to establish the accurate water-exit dynamic model. In the paper, according to the characteristics of the water-exit motion, based on the traditional method of added mass, considering the added mass changing rate, the water-exit dynamic model is established. And with help of the CFX fluid simulation software, a new calculation method of the added mass that is suit for submarine-launched missile is proposed, which can effectively solve the problem of fluid solid coupling in modeling process. Then by the new calculation method, the change law of the added mass in water-exit process of the missile is obtained. In simulated analysis, for the water-exit process of the missile, by comparing the results of the numerical simulation and the calculation of theoretical model, the effectiveness of the new added mass calculation method and the accuracy of the water-exit dynamic model that considers the added mass changing rate are verified.
Philemon Lindagato, Yongjun Li, Gaoxue Yang, Fenghao Duan and Zuopeng Wang
The study area in the West Junggar Basin is known to be rich in hydrothermal gold deposits and occurrences, even though there has been minimum exploration in the area. It is here hypothesised that this area could host more gold deposits if mineral exploration methods were to be reinforced. This research is aimed at identifying geochemical anomalies of Au, and determining possible factors and conditions which facilitate the formation of anomalies by referring to As and Hg as gold pathfinders. Geostatistical analyst techniques have been applied to 9,852 stream sediments and bedrock data collected on a total surface of 1,280 km2 of West Junggar, Xinjiang (northwest China). The kriging interpolation and quantile-quantile plot methods, combined with statistical methods, successfully identified both Au and its pathfinders’ anomalies. In the present study, median was considered as background values (10.2 ppm for As, 9.13 ppb for Hg and 2.5 ppb for Au), whereas the 95th percentile were threshold values (28.03 ppm for As, 16.71 ppb for Hg and 8.2 ppb for Au) and values greater than thresholds are geochemical anomalies. Moreover, the high concentrations of these three discovered elements are caused primarily by hydrothermal ore mineralisation and are found to be controlled mainly by the Hatu and Sartohay faults of a northeast-southwesterly direction as well as their related secondary faults of variable orientation, which facilitate the easy flow of hydrothermal fluids towards the surface resulting in the formation of geochemical anomalies. Most of anomalies concentration of Au are found near the mining sites, which indicates that the formation of new Au anomalies is influenced by current or previous mining sites through geological or weathering processes. In addition, the low concentration of gold and its pathfinders found far from active gold mine or faults indicates that those anomalies are formed due to primary dispersion of hosting rock.
Due to the high exploration cost, limited number of wells for source rocks drilling and scarce test samples for the Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC) in the Huizhou sag, the TOC prediction of source rocks in this area and the assessment of resource potentials of the basin are faced with great challenges. In the study of TOC prediction, predecessors usually adopted the logging assessment method, since the data is only confined to a “point” and the regional prediction of the source bed in the seismic profile largely depends on the recognition of seismic facies, making it difficult to quantify TOC. In this study, we combined source rock geological characteristics, logging and seismic response and built the mathematical relation between quasi TOC curve and seismic data based on the TOC logging date of a single well and its internal seismic attribute. The result suggested that it was not purely a linear relationship that was adhered to by predecessors, but was shown as a complicated non-linear relationship. Therefore, the neural network algorithm and SVMs were introduced to obtain the optimum relationship between the quasi TOC curve and the seismic attribute. Then the goal of TOC prediction can be realized with the method of seismic inversion.