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Ewa Zieliński, Kinga Grobelska, Piotr Dzięgielewski and Romuald Olszański

Abstract

This paper presents a case report of a patient with a diagnosed complication of a sternum wound which was treated using hyperbaric oxygen, emphasizing the truism of the benefits of combined surgical therapy, antibiotic therapy and oxybarotherapy.

Open access

Dariusz Jóźwiak, Piotr Siermontowski, Zbigniew DąbrowieckiI and Romuald Olszański

Abstract

The most common question that arose in the course of the analysis of the data concerned with the number of diving accidents in recreational diving as compared with the authors’ own experiences working with military divers was why the number of accidents in recreational diving is substantially higher than that obtained in military diving. The comparison of factors having a direct effect on diving safety, the scope of depths reached, the manner of conducting decompression and divers’ problems reported after diving completion allow to explain the reasons behind the common incidents occurring among recreational divers. The factors which had a very significant impact on safety level included diving frequency, adaptation to higher pressure conditions and overestimation of one’s skills in undertaking challenges.

Open access

Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki, Małgorzata Dąbrowiecka, Romuald Olszański and Piotr Siermontowski

Abstract

Pathogenic micro-organisms can easily transfer from the surface of a diver’s skin onto the surfaces of a protective suit. A long-term stay in a hyperbaric chamber during a saturation dive increases the risk of infection if in the chamber there is even a single carrier of disease-causing pathogens.

The conducted research has confirmed that the diving equipment located in Diving Centres is a place of many different bacteria and fungi, including pathogenic ones. The vast majority of microbes found on the surfaces of wetsuits, etc. are commensals (with some being opportunistic organisms). This fact allows us to realise that the surfaces of diving equipment are an excellent “transmission route” for various dermatoses and other diseases. In order to reduce the risk of infection the diving equipment used by various people should be subject to the process of decontamination. The authors recommend decontamination with the use of gaseous hydrogen peroxide which does not cause damage to equipment.

Open access

Małgorzata Remlein, Romuald Olszański, Piotr Siermontowski, Zdzisław Kobos, Jacek Buczyński and Andrzej Buczyński

Abstract

Strong wind, low temperature, intense current and poor visibility under water are the most common stress inducing factors in individuals practising water sports. Stress is a state of agitation, which can be caused both by external and internal factors. Its objective is to mobilise one’s physical and psychological capabilities, thus it is a favourable reaction especially in crisis situations when such full mobilisation enables one to cope. Psychological stress is usually evoked by the occurrence of an atypical situation, exceeding one’s handling capacity. It can be induced by seeing real or imagined danger in the surroundings, as well as by external pressure related to a task interpreted as too difficult or exceeding one’s capabilities. Internal pressure appears when a person feels insecure in a given situation, when they cannot solve a problem or they feel discomfort due to their inability to meet the expectations of others, for instance, to perform a particular dive, or because of the money spent on this purpose or the invested time. Physical stress is usually an organism’s response to the environmental impacts. This article presents and discusses factors which have an effect on stress intensification, as well as providing a characterisation of selected psychological and medical theories of stress.

Open access

Piotr Radziwon, Romuald Olszański, Jolanta Korsak and Piotr Siermontowski

Abstract

The lack of evidence for the tissue-factor dependent activation of the coagulation system and the release of thrombin on one hand, and a decreased concentration of factor XII after short term air, saturated air and heliox exposures, as well as an increased concentration of the plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP) after short dives indicate that diving and decompression possibly affect fibrinolysis. The aim of our research was to verify the assumption that diving and decompression activate the system of fibrinolysis and the clarification of the pathomechanism of this activation.

The study involved 50 healthy volunteers who were subjected to short-term, air hyperbaric exposures at 400 kPa and 700 kPa, which correspond to 30m and 60m dives. Decompression was applied in accordance with Naval tables of decompression. Before hyperbaric exposition and after decompression the following factors were determined: activity of factor XII, concentration and activity of t-PA, concentration and activity of PAI-1, concentration of alpha2- antiplasmin, concentration of PAP, concentration of neutrophil elastase.

The following observations have been made: a statistically significant increase in the factor XII activity, increase in the PAP complex concentration and a simultaneous significant decline in the α2-AP activity. No measurable t-PA activity or significant changes in t-PA concentration have been observed. In addition, a statistically significant decline in both the activity and concentration of PAI-1 has been observed, which was more pronounced after the expositions that corresponded to 60 m dives. The concentrations of granulocyte elastase did not differ significantly before and after decompression.

Conclusions: People qualified for diving should have the following risk factors examined: risk factors of increased fibrynolytic activity - haemostasis abnormalities that increase the risk of haemorrhage, possibility of parietal blood clots/thrombi.

Open access

Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki, Małgorzata Dąbrowiecka, Romuald Olszański, Piotr Siermontowski and Dariusz Jóźwiak

Abstract

Many pathogenic micro-organisms are likely to attack passengers of cruise ships and other vessels or travel between continents as a peculiar type of a “stowaway”. The epidemiological tests conducted since 1987 with regard to watercraft led to the coining of a term known as the Sick Boat Syndrome (SBS). The main illnesses encountered on watercraft include gastrointestinal diseases (foodborne) and Legionellosis. Additionally, the ventilation and airconditioning systems of old commercial ships (the so-called Tramps) constitute a real technical challenge. Conditioned air (with removed undesired odour and micro-organisms) should constitute ca. 25% of circulating air. In practice this situation is not typical for vessels of this class. Unclean air poses a real hazard for the crew.

Open access

Tadeusz Doboszyński, Bogdan Łokucijewski, Piotr Siermontowski, Marek Rejman and Romuald Olszański

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of composition of various breathing mixes on physical capacity of rats swimming in hyperbaric conditions. The said effect was determined on the basis of results of a swim test performed in a pressure chamber. The study was performed with the use of atmospheric air, a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (N2/O2) at a ratio of 89.5/10 and 92/7.5, as well as a mixture of argon and oxygen at a ratio of 79.5/20 (Ar/O2). The tests were conducted at a pressure range between 0-4 atm. The results suggest that the physical capacity of the tested animals decreased along with pressure increase regardless of the breathing mix used. Due to the fact that the burdening of rats with physical effort in hyperbaric conditions intensifies the adverse effects of components of breathing mixes on their performance, it seems appropriate to continue the study of physiological responses to breathing mixtures of various compositions in human body subjected to physical effort while under water.

Open access

Małgorzata Remlein, Jacek Buczyński, Romuald Olszański, Andrzej Buczyński, Zdzisław Kobos and Dariusz Juszczak

Abstract

The article presents a characterisation of stress situations and psychological reactions during diving. It describes the fundamental personality dimensions and temperament features, and discusses the results of research into the methods of coping with stress as well as the levels of anxiety in candidates to the position of a professional driver.

Open access

Dorota Niewiedział, Magdalena Kolańska, Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki, Mateusz Jerzemowski, Piotr Siermontowski, Zdzisław Kobos and Romuald Olszański

Abstract

The aim of the article is to conduct a literature review in relation to the psychological aspects of diving. The acquired knowledge can currently be qualified as belonging to various branches of applied psychology, as well as underwater medicine, sports medicine, psychiatry and psychotherapy. The literature on this subject matter raises two main issues of the psychological perspective: the degree of psychological adaptation of an individual to the underwater environment, and the psychophysical condition of a man involved in a specific type of diving and the resulting skills/competences to perform underwater tasks. The article presents selected reports from around the world related to diving psychology resulting from the applied structure/classification of psychological theories, explaining various mechanisms of psychological functioning underwater. The paper presents studies from the perspective of psychodynamics, psychology of health/stress, psychology of individual differences and personality. The main conclusions indicate that in addition to the main problem of an optimal/lack of adaptation of humans to the underwater environment, there is insufficient psychological knowledge (including Polish reports) in the area of personality differences between various types of divers, their social functioning, mental health and psychoeducation with regard to underwater exposures.

Open access

Sławomir Kujawski, Agnieszka Kujawska, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Romuald Olszański, Piotr Siermontowski and Paweł Zalewski

Abstract

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is found among the interests of researchers who seek new methods of treatment of diseases of the nervous system. An increase of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood within the appropriate range leads to numerous changes in the cells of the brain tissue. In this paper we analyse the results of selected articles describing HBOT used on pathologies of the nervous system such as stroke, autism, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy as well as in the course of research on animal models. The results are promising, although some studies struggled with numerous methodological problems and differences in the applied protocols, which resulted in conflicting results in individual interventions. In consequence, the need for further studies in randomised control trials and determination of the protocol by an international group of researchers dedicated to the use of HBOT was emphasised.