Marta Rybska, Sandra Knap, Maurycy Jankowski, Blanka Borowiec, Michal Jeseta, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty and Jędrzej M. Jaśkowski
Ovarian cysts remain to be one of the most common and serious problems in reproduction of farm animals, as well as humans. Apart from causing the fall in reproductive potential of the ovaries, occupying the place in which folliculogenesis and oogenesis occur, they also cause hormone imbalances, by preventing corpus luteum formation, hence lowering the amount of steroid hormone production. While singular cysts rarely affect fertility, hormone fluctuations that are associated with their presence promotes their multiplication, which usually has more adverse effects. While the cysts are easily detectable in humans, possessing distinct echography while examined by ultrasound, multiple factors prevent widespread use of effective detection methods among large herds of farm animals. Because of lack of noticeable symptoms of early stages of such malignancies, they rarely get detected before the animal stops to exhibit symptoms of heat. That causes scientific research to be focused on not only methods of detection, but also the ways to negate the effects of ovarian cysts and bring the affected specimen back to reproductive potential. Despite that, high costs of diagnosis and treatment, cause them to be uncommon on commercial farms. As lack of fertility eliminates animals from breeding purposed herds, ovarian cysts persist as a cause of large losses of the animal husbandry business. Continuous research, focused on natural examples of ovarian cysts should be conducted, in order to improve methods of detection, prevention, treatment and recovery from the effects of ovarian cysts.
Maciej Chyleński, Anna Juras, Danuta Żurkiewicz, Michał Jankowski and Piotr Włodarczak
Ancient DNA was analyzed in altogether 28 Late Eneolithic and Bronze Age human skeletons form 4 sites in southern Ukraine. More than 0,3% of human DNA was preserved only in 13 skeletons. The results of our analyses provide evidence that recovery of DNA molecules suitable for genetic analyses is more dependent on the specificity of the archaeological site and is not strongly correlated with particular environmental factors.
Magdalena Kulus, Jakub Kulus, Maurycy Jankowski, Blanka Borowiec, Michal Jeseta, Dorota Bukowska, Klaus P. Brüssow, Bartosz Kempisty and Paweł Antosik
Constant advances in medicine, both human and veterinary, lead to continuous discovery of new drugs and treatments. Recently, the aspect of stem cell use in regenerative medicine has been very popular. There are still too few clinical trials on animals that could precisely estimate the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy. However, stem cells are a source of extraordinary potential for multiplication and differentiation which, if used properly, can prove to be an effective mean of treatment of numerous diseases that are currently considered untreatable. The purpose of review is the characterization and clinical use of stem cells in mostly occurring diseases. Particular attention has been given to the issue of mesenchymal stromal cells, which so far have been most widely used in clinical practice. Current research into stem cells has allowed scientists to discover many different types of these cells, describe their characteristics and divide them into groups, with the most important being embryonic stem cells and somatic (adult) stem cells. Adult stem cells, due to their availability and lack of ethical problems, are used in veterinary practice. Different types of mesenchymal stem cells are distinguished, based on their origin. Adipose tissue derived stem cells and stromal vascular fraction find the widest clinical application. In veterinary medicine, stem cells therapies are most commonly used in the case of horse orthopedic injuries and in diseases of various origin in dogs and cats. While further research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of cell therapies, they have much potential to find plenty of potential applications in future medicine.
Marta Rybska, Sandra Knap, Katarzyna Stefańska, Maurycy Jankowski, Agata Chamier-Gliszczyńska, Małgorzata Popis, Michal Jeseta, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Bartosz Kempisty and Jędrzej M. Jaśkowski
The superfamily of transforming growth factors β (TGF-β) consists of cytokines that are crucial in regulating the organism’s biological functions and includes three isoforms of TGF-β protein, Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH), inhibin A and B, activins, 20 bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP1-20) and 9 growth factors (GDF1-9). Their signal transduction pathway involves three types of membrane receptors that exhibit a serine/threonine kinase activity, as well as the Smad proteins. After ligand binding, the Smad proteins are phosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus, where they interact with transcription factors and affect gene expression. TGF-β family members are involved in cell growth and differentiation, as well as chemo-taxis and apoptosis, and play an important role during an inflammation. Defects in TGF-β proteins or in their signalling pathway underlie many severe diseases, such as systemic lupus, systemic scleroderma, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis, hyperthyroidism or cancer. These factors are also crucial in mammal reproductive functions, as they are involved in folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, ovulation, maternal-embryo interaction, embryo development and uterine decidualization. Their defects result in issues with fertility. This review focuses on the relevance of TGF-β family members in a mammal reproduction with an emphasis on three TGF-β isoforms, inhibins A and B, GDF-9 and their signal transduction pathway.
Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Sandra Knap, Maurycy Jankowski, Magdalena Magas, Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Piotr Ramlau, Andrzej Nowicki, Magdalena Rojewska, Błażej Chermuła, Michal Jeseta, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Maciej Zabel, Michał Nowicki and Bartosz Kempisty
The process of reproduction requires several factors, leading to successful fertilization of an oocyte by a single spermatozoon. One of them is the complete maturity of an oocyte, which is acquired during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. Additionally, the oviduct, composed of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs), has a prominent influence on this event through sperm modification and supporting oocyte’s movement towards uterus. OECs were isolated from porcine oviducts. Cells were kept in primary in vitro culture for 30 days. After 24h and on days 7, 15 and 30 cells were harvested, and RNA was isolated. Transcript changes were analyzed using microarrays. Fatty acids biosynthetic process and fatty acids transport ontology groups were selected for analysis and described. Results of this study indicated that majority of genes in both ontology groups were up-regulated on day 7, 15 and 30 of primary in vitro culture. We analyzed genes involved in fatty acids biosynthetic process, including: GGT1, PTGES, INSIG1, SCD, ACSL3, FADS2, FADS1, ACSS2, ALOX5AP, ACADL, SYK, ACACA, HSD17B8, FADS3, OXSM, and transport, including: ABCC2, ACSL4, FABP3, PLA2G3, PPARA, SYK, PPARD, ACACA and P2RX7. Elevated levels of fatty acids in bovine and human oviducts are known to reduce proliferation capacity of OECs and promote inflammatory responses in their microenvironment. Most of measured genes could not be connected to reproductive events. However, the alterations in cellular proliferation, differentiation and genes expression during in vitro long-term culture were significant. Thus, we can treat them as putative markers of changes in OECs physiology.
Wiesława Kranc, Maurycy Jankowski, Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Ronza Khozmi, Artur Bryja, Sylwia Borys, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Michal Jeseta, Magdalena Magas, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus P. Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty
The ovary is part of the reproductive system, possessing very important functions in the reproduction process (ovum and embryo transfer, providing a suitable environment for sperm capacitation, etc.). There are two types of cells in the fallopian tubes: alveolar and secretive cells. These study shows the metabolic processes in pig oviductal epithelial cells associated with the activation of signaling pathways of amino acids metabolism and degradation during long-term in vitro culture. Oviductal epithelial cells from 45 colonies in the anestrous phase of the estrous cycle have been utilized in this study. RNA extract from the OEC primary cultures was pooled after 24h, 7days, 15 days and 30 days from the beginning of culture and the transcriptome investigated by Affymetrix® Porcine Gene 1.1 ST. From the whole transcript that consisted of 2009 different genes, 1537 were upregulated and 995 were downregulated after 7 days of culture, 1471 were upregulated and 1061 were downregulated after 15 days of culture and 1329 were upregulated and 1203 were downregulated after 30 days of culture. The results of these studies provide, for the first time, information on the activation of metabolic pathways of amino acids such as valine, leucine, isoleucine, cysteine, and methionine in the investigated tissue. They also indicate genes that may be OECs-specific genetic markers that are expressed or upregulated during long-term in vitro culture.
Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Artur Bryja, Michal Jeseta, Maurycy Jankowski, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Andrzej Nowicki, Klaus P. Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty
Mammalian oocytes undergo compound processes of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation that allow them to reach MII stage. Only fully mature, oocyte can be successfully fertilized by a single spermatozoon. Fatty acids, apart from their role in cellular metabolism, inflammation and tissue development, have positive and detrimental effects on oocyte maturation, fertilization, blastocyst cleavage rate and embryo development in mammals. Using microarrays, we have analyzed the expression changes in fatty acids- -related genes during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes. The oocytes were recovered from ovaries of 45 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts and subsequently subjected to BCB test. For further analyses, only granulosa cell-free BCB+ oocytes were used and divided into two groups. The first one, described as “before IVM”, was directly exposed to molecular assays, the second one, described as “after IVM”, was first in vitro matured and then subjected to a second BCB test. Oocytes, if classified as BCB+, were then passed to corresponding molecular analyses. We found significant down-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid metabolic process, such as: ACSL6, EPHX2, FADS2, PTGES, TPI1, TBXAS1, NDUFAB1, MIF, ACADSB and DECR1 in porcine oocytes analyzed after IVM, in comparison to those analyzed before IVM. In conclusion, apart from poor data available concerning analyzed genes in relation to reproductive events, significant changes in their expression point to their potential role as an oocyte developmental competence markers in pigs. Introducing molecular diagnostics of oocytes could be the prospective tool for selection of best gametes, leading to improved outcomes of in vitro fertilization.
Katarzyna Stefańska, Agata Chamier-Gliszczyńska, Maurycy Jankowski, Piotr Celichowski, Magdalena Kulus, Magdalena Rojewska, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Bartosz Kempisty, Michal Jeseta and Jana Zakova
The correct oviductal development and morphogenesis of its epithelium are crucial factors influencing female fertility. Oviduct is involved in maintaining an optimal environment for gametes and preimplantation embryo development; secretory oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) synthesize components of oviductal fluid. Oviductal epithelium also participates in sperm binding and its hyperactivation. For better understanding of the genetic bases that underlay porcine oviductal development, OECs were isolated from porcine oviducts and established long-term primary culture. A microarray approach was utilized to determine the differentially expressed genes during specific time periods. Cells were harvested on day 7, 15 and 30 of in vitro primary culture and their RNA was isolated. Gene expression was analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. 48 differentially expressed genes belonging to “tube morphogenesis”, “tube development”, “morphogenesis of an epithelium”, “morphogenesis of branching structure” and “morphogenesis of branching epithelium” GO BP terms were selected, of which 10 most upregulated include BMP4, ARG1, SLIT2, FGFR1, DAB2, TNC, EPAS1, HHEX, ITGB3 and LOX. The results help to shed light on the porcine oviductal development and its epithelial morphogenesis, and show that after long-term culture the OECs still proliferate and maintain their tube forming properties.
Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Piotr Celichowski, Maurycy Jankowski, Wiesława Kranc, Artur Bryja, Sylwia Borys-Wójcik, Michal Jeseta, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Maciej Zabel, Michał Nowicki and Bartosz Kempisty
The morphological and biochemical modification of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) belongs to the group of compound processes responsible for proper oocyte transport and successful fertilization. The cellular interactions between cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) are crucial for this unique mechanism. In the present study we have analyzed angiogenesis and blood vessel development processes at transcript levels. By employing microarrays, four ontological groups associated with these mechanisms have been described. Differentially expressed genes belonging to the “angiogenesis”, “blood circulation”, “blood vessel development” and “blood vessel morphogenesis” GO BP terms were investigated as a potential markers for the creation of new blood vessels in cells under in vitro primary culture conditions.
Maurycy Jankowski, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Joanna Budna, Sandra Knap, Artur Bryja, Sylwia Borys, Wiesława Kranc, Magdalena Magas, Michal Jeseta, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus P. Brüssow, Marie Machatkova, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty
In modern medical research, stem cells are one of the main focuses, believed to be able to provide the solution to many currently unsolvable medical cases. However, their extraordinary potential for differentiation creates much obstacles in their potential application in clinical environment, without understanding the whole array of molecular mechanisms that drive the processes associated with their development and maturation. Because of that, there is a large need for studies that concern the most basic levels of those processes. Progenitor stem cells are a favorable target, as they are relatively lineage committed, making the amount of signaling required to reach the final form much lower. Their presence in the adult organism is also an advantage in their potential use, as they can be extracted without the need for storage from the moment of pre-natal development or birth. Epithelial tissues, because of their usual location or function, exhibit extraordinary level of plasticity and proliferative potential. That fact makes them one of the top candidates for use in applications such as tissue engineering, cell based therapies, regenerative and reconstructive medicine. The potential clinical application, however, need to be based on well developed methods, in order to provide an effective treatment without causing major side effects. To achieve that goal, a large amount of research, aiming to analyze the molecular basics of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial stem cells, and stem cells in general, needs to be conducted.