An apparatus for measuring biodegradability of metalworking fluids (MWFs) was constructed according to (1), based on the Zahn-Wellens test which enables a continuous determination of CO2 production by the change in conductivity of absorption solution. Results obtained from the testing of 8 different MWFs by this modified method were compared to those obtained in standardized OECD 302 B. The comparison showed better description of bacterial inoculum activity in tested solution; lag phase was easy to indicate. Tested emulsion achieved the level of primary degradability 39.7 – 40.8 %, and semi-synthetics 19.1 – 43.5%. The samples of synthetics where the degradation level reached 43.9 - 58.6 % were identified as the most degradable metalworking fluids.
The increase in mineralization and biodegradability of MWFs by ozone/ultraviolet in comparison with ozone were investigated. Studied were two similar synthetic fluids pre-treated by the combination of the O3/UV advanced oxidative method. Expectations that the pre-treatment could enhance biodegradability of the metalworking fluid were not confirmed. The combined oxidation process at the defined conditions resulted in 1-35 % decrease of the achieved primary degradation level. Samples were prepared from real concentrates and diluted to approximately 350 mg/L of TOC.
A real-time monitoring and regulation system for metalworking fluids is being constructed to be installed in the Centre of excellence of 5-axis machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The article is focused on the description of the main components of the monitoring system and preliminary characterization of the software utilized in the regulation. The monitoring system will contain four probes to record real time values of pH, conductivity, temperature and concentration. After processing of recorded data by the LabVIEW software, an adjustment of the Metalworking fluid in the reservoir tank will be realized by the regulation part of the proposed system to optimum properties of the fluid, by adding water or concentrate. The designed device will provide an easy system which will control the quality of used metalworking fluid during its lifetime and maintain it on its optimum condition without human operator’s assistance.
The paper is focused on the experiment where the effects of the cutting environment and feed of drilling on the bores roughness and cylindricity were evaluated. Dry drilling of aluminium alloys (without using cutting fluids) is an environmentally friendly machining process but also an extremely difficult task, which is due to the tendency of aluminium to adhere to the drills made of conventional materials such as high-speed steel; and therefore three cutting environments (namely two different emulsions and compressed air) were used in the experiment. The article demonstrates multicriterial optimization of input factors (cutting environment, feed) for two defined target functions: roughness and cylindricity). The measured values were subjected to mathematico–statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). ANOVA was used for examining the effects of machining parameters and their contribution to the surface roughness and bores cylindricity. The optimal cutting parameters were evaluated for “Smaller-the-Better” quality characteristics of both output responses, as can be seen in our article published previously. Based on the ANOVA, we determined that cutting environment exhibited higher percentage of contribution on bores quality than feed of machining. The results show 77.37 % impact of cutting environment and 8.13 % impact of feed on quality of machined bores.