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Open access

Y. Wang, J. Guo, S. Qiao, Q. Li, J. Yang, Q. Jin and G. Zhang

Abstract

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen, causing huge economic losses each year worldwide. Immunization with vaccines containing the glycoprotein 5 (GP5) of PRRSV is the main measure to induce neutralizing antibodies and control the disease. Here, we developed a GP5 protein-based ELISA for detecting antibodies against PRRSV. The overall yield of purified GP5 in E. coli flask culture was more than 45 mg/L cell culture. Western blot and IFA indicated that the GP5 protein was highly immunogenic. After optimization and validation with IDEXX PRRS using 566 clinical sera, the DSN, DSP, and accuracy of GP5-ELISA were 81.39%, 75.96%, and 80.39%, respectively. Besides, GP5-ELISA is highly specific, showing no cross-reactions with sera against other important swine pathogens. Hence, GP5 is a good diagnostic antigen and the GP5 protein-based ELISA has the potential to be used in the field.

Open access

J. H. Gu, Z. Lu, L. Long, Z. Y. Zhong, C. Y. Yang and J. Hou

Abstract

Highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) transparent thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF mag­netron sputtering. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), four-point probe and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The effect of growth temperature on the structure and optoelectrical properties of the films was investigated. The results demonstrate that high quality GZO films oriented with their crystal­lographic c-axis perpendicular to the substrates are obtained. The structure and optoelectrical properties of the films are highly dependent on the growth temperature. It is found that with increasing growth temperature, the average visible transmittance of the deposited films is enhanced and the residual stress in the thin films is obviously relaxed. The GZO films deposited at the growth temperature of 400°C, which have the largest grain size (74.3 nm), the lowest electrical resistivity (1.31×10-3 Ω·cm) and the maximum figure of merit (1.46×1O-2Ω-1), exhibit the best optoelectrical properties. Furthermore, the optical proper­ties of the deposited films were determined by the optical characterization methods and the optical energy-gaps were evaluated by extrapolation method. A blue shift of the optical energy gap is observed with an increase in the growth temperature.

Open access

W. Yang, H. Xiu, Y. Xiong, J. Wang, C. Yuan, J. Wei and Z. Zhou

Abstract

(Na0.52K0.44Li0.04)0.97La0.01Ta0.20Nb0.80O3 (KNLTN-La0.01) lead-free subtransparent ceramics was prepared by a conventional sintering technique. The structure and the optical properties of the ceramics were investigated. The room temperature crystallographic indexing revealed the ABO3 perovskite type, tetragonal phase and P4mm point group in the ceramics. The surface and fractured surface SEM micrographs showed a dense microstructure with few micropores in KNLTN-La0.01 ceramics, which was obviously better than for the pure KNLTN ceramics. The refractive indexes of the films were investigated by an ellipsometer and the results show that the KNLTN-La0.01 subtransparent ceramics reveals significant wavelength dependent dispersion. The refractive index ranges from 2.14 to 2.06 with the wavelength increase from 380 nm to 900 nm. The dispersive behavior was analyzed by three parameters of Cauchy dispersion model and the values of the parameters A, B and C are 2.0610±0.0005, 0.0054±0.0003 and 0.00069±0.00004, respectively.

Open access

Z. S. Kim, J. W. Hwang, S. W. Lee, C. Yang and P. G. Gorovoy

Abstract

We studied and compared genetic variation of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) from 12 natural populations in Korea, China, and Russian Far East using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). Eighteen polymorphic allozyme loci and 38 polymorphic RAPD fragments were analyzed. The level of allozyme diversity (A = 1.95, P95 = 46.8%, Ho = 0.158, He = 0.169) and the degree of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.069) were comparable to those of other pines with similar life histories and ecological traits. Allozyme (He) as well as RAPD (Shannon’s index) variation decreased from south (Korea) to north (Russia), providing an evidence for the hypothesis of Korean pine’s northward migration. Differentiations among three different regions (Korea, China, and Russia) as well as among populations within regions were small. Substantial gene flow (Nm = 3.4) may be a partial explanation to this result. Clustering algorithms using various genetic distance measures showed some decisive geographic patterns at allozyme and RAPD level: the geographically close populations tended to be clustered together. On the other hand, two Chinese populations, Xobukho and Wangging, were grouped with the Russian populations rather than with the other Chinese populations. The Xiaoxing’anling and other mountains extended from north to south seemed to function as a barrier against gene flow between the Xobukho and Wangging (located east of the mountains) and the other Chinese P. koraiensis populations (located west of the mountains). The genetic diversities and differentiation estimated from RAPD data in Korean pine were congruent with those of allozymes.

Open access

J. Cheng, X.P. Zou, G. Zhu, M. F. Wang, Y. Su, G.Q. Yang and X. M. Lü

In this paper, the effects of position of substrates in flames, preparation time, stability of flames and catalyst precursors on the synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by ethanol catalytic combustion (ECC) were investigated. For investigating the effects of these influence factors on the synthesis of CNFs, several sets of controlled experiments were performed, such as preparation experiments with different position of substrates in flames, different preparation time, stable and unstable flames, and different catalyst precursors. In our experiments, the catalyst precursors were iron nitrate, cobalt nitrate, nickel nitrate, and iron chloride, cobalt chloride, nickel chloride. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Our results indicate that the optimal position of substrates in flames is more than 1cm and less than 2.5cm, the optimal preparation time is more than 5min and less than 30min for massive yield, stable flames would be tent to synthesize CNFs with mainly single-type morphology and could improve the graphitization of CNFs, and the catalyst precursors obviously have effects on the synthesis of CNFs.

Open access

G.-S. Moon, T.-J. Chung, S.-H. Yang, G.-S. Hong and K.-S. Oh

Abstract

The green body and dense substrate of indium tin oxide was joined by uniaxially pressing at 0.3 MPa at 1300°C to test the restoring of the eroded part of transparent conducting oxide target. The green body was sintered to 98% of theoretical density under the suppression of shrinkage along the boundary below 5%. The boundary between two parts was free of pore but could be recognized from the difference in grain sizes. The joined part had the virtually same density with the substrate, but the grain size was less than one fifth compared with that of substrate.

Open access

Renchao Yang, A.J. (Tom) van Loon, Wei Yin, Aiping Fan and Zuozhen Han

Abstract

The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China).

The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.

Open access

Y. Zeng, W. Ye, L. Yang, Y. Huang, K. Zhao, Z. Zhang, H. Liang and J. Kerns

Abstract

Studies were conducted to characterize morphological and molecular profiles of two isolates of Paratrichodorus porosus (SZ1 and SZ2) which were recovered from Acacia mangium in Tianxinshan and Gleichenia linearis in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites in Shenzhen, China, respectively. Analysis of morphometric, morphological and molecular characters revealed these two Shenzhen isolates are identical to P. porosus. Measurements of both study isolates lie within the ranges for P. porosus. It is typologically characterized by possessing a clearly swollen body cuticle after fixation, an onchiostyle ventrally curved, 46–58 μm long, a pharyngeal bulb usually with a well developed anterior-dorsal intestinal overlap, a secretoryexcretory pore opening between the nerve ring and anterior end of pharyngeal bulb, 90–110 μm from the anterior end, a reproductive system with didelphic, amphidelphic, without spermathecae, a pore-like vulva in ventral view and occupying 52.0 %–59.5 % of total body length from anterior end, a short and barrel-shaped vagina with small sclerotizations, a pair of ventromedian advulvar body pores located prevulvar and postvulvar, a rounded tail and a subterminal anus in females. The sequence analysis based on partial rDNA 18S gene and 28S D2/D3 expansion segment confirm its identity as P. porosus. This is the first report of P. porosus associated with A. mangium and G. linearis.

Open access

X. F. Yang, Z. Y. Jiang, Z. M. Tian, Y. Q. Qiu, L. Wang, K. G. Gao, Y. J. Hu and X. Y. Ma

Abstract

The uneven development of adipose tissues reflects a differential occurrence of biological events in vivo while the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, the in vivo inflammatory status of an inbred obese porcine model, Lantang pig, was assessed, aiming to provide evidence for obesity biology. Compared with genetically lean pigs (crossbred, Duroc × Landrace × Large White), Lantang pigs exhibited a larger amount of ultra large adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue accompanied with higher expression of macrophage/monocytes markers and pro-inflammatory genes (TLR4, CD14, CD11β, MCP1, TNFα, IL1β and IL6) and lower expression of cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, 2 and 3). Plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were also higher in Lantang pigs than in lean pigs. Among adipose tissues of Lantang pigs, the subcutaneous tissue had the most abundant expression of inflammation related genes (TLR4, CD14, TNFα and IL6) and the lowest level of cellular antioxidant genes (SOD 1 and 2), while the perirenal adipose tissue had opposite profile. Significant activation of p38 MAPK pathway was indicated by increased phosphorylation of p38 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Lantang pigs. Collectively, the bacteria-derived LPS induced inflammation-associated oxidative stress indeed exists in adipose tissues of Lantang pig, and the differential expressions of inflammatory and antioxidant genes, to some extent, account for the uneven development of the adipose tissue within bodies.

Open access

Zhi Yong Zhan, Yang Dong Wang, J. Shockey, Yi Cun Chen, Zhi Chun Zhou, Xiao Hua Yao and Hua Dong Ren

Abstract

As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique chemical properties of tung seed oil make it one of the best known industrial drying oils. In this review, the breeding status of tung trees in China and some factors which limit the development of tung tree breeding will be summarised. Improvements in ecological performance and pathogen resistance, through to improved breeding methods, will help to rapidly expand the development and use of tung trees and their oil products in China. It is essential for tung tree breeding to advance in the future to keep pace with the increased demand.