Air and rock surface temperature regime was monitored in Kateˇrinsk´a Cave in Moravian Karst (Czech Republic, South Moravia). Highly accurate temperature sensors with data logger were used for air temperature measurement. Rock surface temperature was monitored by infrared thermometer and infrared thermal camera. Statistical and graphical processing and 2D map were carried out. The rock surface and air temperature increase as the distance from the entrance increases. The highest dynamics of interior air temperature (amplitude 14.3 ◦ C) and the lowest average temperature (4.03 ◦ C) were detected near the entrance. At a distance of 10 m from the entrance the minimum rock surface temperature was -8.74 ◦ C and maximum 8.60 ◦ C. Rock temperature amplitude decreases as the distance from the entrance increases (at the distance of 271-280 m reached the minimum value 1.19 ◦ C). The strongest correlation between internal temperature in remote part of the cave and external temperature was found when external data series shifted 22 days backward. Maximum temperatures in remote part are affected by attendance. Maximum daily amplitude (MDA) in remote parts reached up to 0.69 ◦ C while MDA near the entrance (up to 4.27 ◦ C) is caused by external weather.
Tomáš Litschmann, Jaroslav Rožnovský, Tomáš Středa, Hana Středová and Jiří Hebelka
The paper deals with the evaluation of temperature and humidity measurements in the vertical profile of Macocha Abyss (Moravian Karst, South Moravia, Czech Republic). The measuring profile on a rock wall is made up of seven HOBO-PRO sensors. Two other meteorological stations are installed at the bottom and near the upper edge of the abyss. The evaluation was designed separately for warm season (June 1, 2008 to August 31, 2008) and cold season (November 1, 2008 to February 28, 2009). In the warm season, distribution of inverse temperatures dominated in the abyss. Temperature differences between the bottom of the abyss and its upper edge reached about 10 ◦ C. At the bottom of the abyss, the minimum temperatures proved to be higher than at its upper edge and in its vicinity. Thermal circulation is evident to the depth of about 60 m. The highest temperatures were observed in the deeper layers of the abyss in the warm period at around 10 a.m. of Central European Summer Time. Towards the upper edge of the abyss, the hour of daily maximum temperature shifts to 2 to 4 p.m. In the cold season, the minimum temperature was observed between 6 and 7 a.m. of Central European Time. A decrease in the accumulation of cold air (cold-air pool formation) was not found in the lower floors of the abyss. This phenomenon does not occur even during clear nights. The depth of 60 m from the upper edge of the area maintains a high relative humidity (above 95%) in the warm season. However, humidity decreases from this depth towards the top of the abyss. In the cold season, the whole abyss is filled with air with relative humidity of 90 to 95%.
Hana Středová, Josef Krása, Petr Štěpánek and Ivan Novotný
Number of erosive rains, kinetic energy of erosive rains and factor of erosive efficiency of rains according to the USLE methodology were assessed by two methods of erosive rains determination. The first method (VAR1) defined erosive rains by intensity ≥ 0.4 mm· min-1; total ≥ 12.5 mm and the second method (VAR2) by intensity ≥ 6 mm· 15 min-1; total ≥ 12.5 mm. Database contained one minute precipitation data from four automatic stations in the Czech Republic for the period of 2000-2005. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a statistically highly significant difference between the annual number of erosive rains determined by the two methods. The rains simultaneously complying with two following criteria (30 min intensity lower than 15 mm·h−1 and sum of 40 mm) were not generally classified as erosive rains according to VAR2. The number of erosive rains determined by VAR2 most often reached 40 to 50% of VAR1 results. Two-way ANOVA proved highly significant differences between the kinetic energy values for the erosive rains determined by VAR1 a VAR2. According to VAR2 the rains with kinetic energy lower than 3 MJ·ha −1 are generally not considered as erosive rains. The results of kinetic energy of the erosive rains determined by VAR2 most often reached 60 to 70% of VAR1 results. Two-way ANOVA has not proved a statistical difference between annual values of R factor of erosive rains determined by the two methods. According to VAR2 the rains with R factor lower than 5 are in general not included into annual R factor value. The results of annual R factor values of erosive rains determined by VAR2 are about 25% lower than the results of VAR1. Correlation between number of erosive rains, kinetic energy of erosive rains and annual R factor value assessed by both methods showed a statistically significant relationship. The conversion formulas between results of the two methods (VAR1 and VAR2) were derived by linear regression. As conclusion we can state that when using present automatic stations in R factor analyses, we have to be aware of overestimating the erosivities compared to historical data based on ombrograms, where only low temporal resolution data were available.
Hana Středová, Jana Podhrázská, Tomáš Litschmann, Tomáš Středa and Jaroslav Rožnovský
The paper summarizes the results of wind velocity measurement in different distances from windbreak in combination with optical porosity (OP) determination in different periods. Experimental data were obtained by direct measurement of wind speed and OP analyses of images of four windbreaks in Southern Moravia (part of Czech Republic). Wind speed at 2 m above the soil surface in a defined distance from windbreak had been measured since 2006. Thirty images of different phenological stages of selected windbreaks from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed. Windward or leeward images were converted into black and white spectrum. All available measurements were used for a map creation. The highest values of OP (up to 50%) are achieved in non-vegetation period. Due to the high OP variability in height of terminal tree branches “OP reduced” was also assessed (just squares to 2/3 height of windbreaks were evaluated). The wind speed reduction on the leeward side relatively strongly correlated with OP value. The highest correlation was found out when the wind speed measurement at 50 m on leeward side was used. The dependence decreases with increasing distance. Full foliage in summer (10% OP) reduces a wind speed about 60% at 50 m and about 30% at 150 m on the leeward. These values for non-foliaged windbreaks decrease to 80 and 90%. Maximum distance of windbreak effect on wind speed reduction was found out by the extrapolation of the curves constructed using the regression equation of wind speed reduction in dependence on OP and different distances from the windbreak. Regardless of OP value, the reduction effect disappears at a distance of 250 m. The quietest zone of evaluated windbreak with an average height of windbreaks 15-18 m was detected in the area about four times the height (4H). The effect of windbreaks decreases with increasing porosity.
Jana Krčmáŕová, Hana Stredová, Radovan Pokorný and Tomáš Stdŕeda
The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter wheat canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for phytopathological prediction models, crop development, and yield models. The measurement of soil temperatures was performed at the experimental field station ˇZabˇcice (Europe, the Czech Republic, South Moravia). The soil in the first experimental plot is Gleyic Fluvisol with 49-58% of the content particles measuring < 0.01 mm, in the second experimental plot, the soil is Haplic Chernozem with 31-32% of the content particles measuring < 0.01 mm. The course of soil temperature and its specifics were determined under winter wheat canopy during the main growth season in the course of three years. Automatic soil temperature sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m under soil surface), air temperature sensor in 0.05 m above soil surface. Results of the correlation analysis showed that the best interrelationships between these two variables were achieved after a 3-hour delay for the soil temperature at 0.05 m, 5-hour delay for 0.10 m, and 8-hour delay for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient reached values from 0.75 to 0.89 for the depth of 0.05 m, 0.61 to 0.82 for the depth of 0.10 m, and 0.33 to 0.70 for the depth of 0.20 m. When using multiple regression with quadratic spacing (modeling hourly soil temperature based on the hourly near surface air temperature and hourly soil moisture in the 0.10-0.40 m profile), the difference between the measured and the model soil temperatures at 0.05 m was −2.16 to 2.37 ◦ C. The regression equation paired with alternative agrometeorological instruments enables relatively accurate modeling of soil temperatures (R2 = 0.93).
Jaroslav Rožnovský, Tomáš Litschmann, Hana Středová, Tomáš Středa, Petr Salaš and Marie Horká
Urban environment differs from the surrounding landscape in terms of the values of meteorological parameters. This is often referred to as the urban heat island (UHI), which in simple terms means higher air temperatures in cities. The cause of these changes lies in the different active surfaces in cities, which subsequently results in a different radiation balance. The higher temperatures, however, also affect the living conditions in the city and during very high temperature periods can have negative effects on the health of the city inhabitants. The results presented in this paper are based on measurements taken over several years at locations near Hradec Králové, which is surrounded by different surface areas. Environment analysis was performed using the Humidex index. The obtained results show that replacing green areas with built-up areas affects temperatures in the city, when air temperatures are very high they significantly increase the discomfort of the inhabitants. Differences in the frequency of discomfort levels are observed especially during periods of high temperatures, at lower temperatures these differences are not significant. Higher frequencies of discomfort are observed at locations with artificial surfaces (asphalt, cobblestones, concrete) and in closed spaces. In contrast, locations with lots of green areas almost always have the value of this index lower or more balanced. The results should therefore be a valid argument for maintaining and extending green areas in cities.
Bronislava Mužíková, Tomáš Stŕeda and Hana Stŕedová
To evaluate soil moisture conditions in spring crops sowing term, data of bare soil surface state were used. Analysis included 32 stations throughout the Czech Republic. Number of days with dry soil surface in each year was compared with the average number of those days in the period 1961-2010 for a given station. The limits of the individual categories were then determined for the period 1961-2010. The individual values of the number of days with dry condition of soil in the early spring period were compared with acquired 10th, 25th, 75th and 90th percentile average (1961-2010). More days with dry soil are usually observed in April than in March. In both months there are 11 days with this condition of soil altogether on average. Dry early spring occurred mainly in 1961, 1968, 1974, 1981, 1990, 2002, 2003, 2007 and 2009. Wet spring occurred in years 1965, 1970, 1980, 2001 and 2006 at almost all stations. There is a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between number of days with dry condition of soil and elevation (r = −0.51, n = 32). Average number of days with dry condition of soil surface in March and April in the period 1961-2010 ranges from 5 to 21 days, which is similar to the median values. Trend analysis did not produce conclusive results, but linear trend of smoothing April data was significantly increased in most localities. The number of days with dry condition of soil in the past decades has no significant upward or downward trend. However four years (2002, 2003, 2007 and 2009) have been evaluated as dry and two years (2001 and 2006) were evaluated as wet. An amount of extreme spring weather increases.
Tomáš Středa, Hana Středová, Filip Chuchma, Josef Kučera and Jaroslav Rožnovský
The occurrence of drought during flowering (usually from the end of May to the beginning of June) is the most hazardous timing in terms of the possible negative impact of agricultural drought on winter wheat, which is the most cultivated crop in the Czech Republic (about 800000 ha). Lack of water, often accompanied by high temperatures, negatively affects the number of grains in the wheat ear and the tissue development of the developing grain, with consequent impacts on yield and quality of product. With the use of a) long-term time series of agrometeorological data (1961–2010), b) long-term phenological time series of winter wheat (1981–2010), and c) soil conditions data (available water capacity of soils of the Czech Republic) for the arable soil, the ratio of actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration for the period of 1961–2010, used as an indicator of agricultural drought (lack of water) for wheat, was calculated. The innovative aspect of this categorization of the territory of the Czech Republic according to the risk of occurrence of agricultural drought for winter wheat is considering drought from the aspect of the plant, i.e., evaluation based on the actual consumption of water by the vegetation. This is a very sophisticated procedure. Frequently, water content in soils data, presented as an output of some models, do not fully indicate the possible negative impacts on yield generation because the plants themselves are typically not considered. The method used in this study is universally applicable and allows comparisons of regions at the local, regional, and supra-regional levels. For estimation of the development of agronomic drought in the future, the basic water balances in the growing seasons of 1961–2010 and 2071–2100 were compared using a climate scenario. The forecast indicates a significant deterioration of agricultural drought in the region with probable direct impacts on agricultural production.
Jana Škvareninová, Mária Tuhárska, Jaroslav Škvarenina, Darina Babálová, Lenka Slobodníková, Branko Slobodník, Hana Středová and Jozef Minďaš
Research on urban climates has been an important topic in recent years, given the growing number of city inhabitants and significant influences of climate on health. Nevertheless, far less research has focused on the impacts of light pollution, not only on humans, but also on plants and animals in the landscape. This paper reports a study measuring the intensity of light pollution and its impact on the autumn phenological phases of tree species in the town of Zvolen (Slovakia). The research was carried out at two housing estates and in the central part of the town in the period 2013–2016. The intensity of ambient nocturnal light at 18 measurement points was greater under cloudy weather than in clear weather conditions. Comparison with the ecological standard for Slovakia showed that average night light values in the town centre and in the housing estate with an older type of public lighting, exceeded the threshold value by 5 lux. Two tree species, sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L.), demonstrated sensitivity to light pollution. The average onset of the autumn phenophases in the crown parts situated next to the light sources was delayed by 13 to 22 days, and their duration was prolonged by 6 to 9 days. There are three major results: (i) the effects of light pollution on organisms in the urban environment are documented; (ii) the results provide support for a theoretical and practical basis for better urban planning policies to mitigate light pollution effects on organisms; and (iii) some limits of the use of plant phenology as a bioindicator of climate change are presented.