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  • Author: Andrzej Posyniak x
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Open access

Anna Gajda, Andrzej Posyniak and Grzegorz Tomczyk

Abstract

For the purpose of quantitative determination of doxycycline (DC) residues in tissues, a sensitive liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed. The method was used to determine DC residues in chicken tissues (breast and thigh muscle, liver and kidney) after oral administration with drinking water to five-weak-old broiler chickens. The DC was administered for five consecutive days at a therapeutic dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. once a day. The tissues were collected after 6 h, 24 h, 7 d, and 8 d. The method was validated and the decision limit was established for muscle - 109.2 μg/kg, for liver - 326.1 μg/kg, and for kidney - 634.0 μg/kg. The detection limit was 2 μg/kg and the limit of quantification was 5 μg/kg. In a short period after ceasing the treatment, the detected concentrations of DC were much higher than the established maximum residue limit values. The highest residue concentrations of DC were observed in the kidney, followed by the liver and muscle. The lowest concentration of DC was determined in tight muscle.

Open access

Tomasz Śniegocki, Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska and Andrzej Posyniak

Abstract

Introduction: The main problem in determination of chloramphenicol in food of animal origin is a large number of matrices. The main target of this study was to create a method for determination and confirmation of chloramphenicol in products and food of animal origin. Material and Methods: Each 5 g matrix sample was mixed with 5 mL of water and 10 mL of acetonitrile/ethyl acetate, homogenised, and centrifuged. The organic layer was evaporated and redissolved in 6 mL of 4% NaCl. The extract was cleaned up by SPE technique. Chloramphenicol was analysed by LC-MS/MS in electrospray mode. Results: The procedure was validated according to the Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The apparent recoveries were in the range of 92.1% to 107.1% with a repeatability less than 11.0% (4.4%-11.0%) and within-laboratory reproducibility below 13.6% (4.7%-13.6%). Conclusion: The method was successfully validated and proved to be efficient, precise, and useful for quantification of chloramphenicol in more than 20 different matrices.

Open access

Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Alicja Kłopot, Sebastian Witek, Katarzyna Sielska and Andrzej Posyniak

Abstract

Introduction: Studies of anabolic hormone residues in the tissues of slaughter animals have been carried out in Poland for more than 25 years. During the period of 2011 to 2015, a total of 35 387 samples from different animal species were tested in the National Residue Control Programme for the presence of residues of compounds that cause hormonal effects, as listed in Annex 1 of Directive 96/23/EC.

Material and Methods: The research was conducted in the National Reference Laboratory and eight regional laboratories in departments of veterinary hygiene located throughout the country. Urine, muscle tissue, serum, kidney fat, and drinking water were the targeted matrices. Test methods based on instrumental techniques such as gas and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry were applied, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results: The concentration of detected hormones exceeded the decision limits in 30 samples, the consequence of which was 41 non-compliances with current applicable criteria. The hormones found present pseudo-endogenous (nortestosterone and boldenone) only, while synthetic hormones were not identified.

Conclusion: The non-compliant findings constitute a small percentage (0.085%) of the five-year analysis compilation. On this basis the related food produced in Poland can be accepted as safe for human consumption with regard to the hormone residues tested.

Open access

Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Andrzej Posyniak, Kamila Mitrowska, Anna Gajda, Tomasz Błądek, Tomasz Śniegocki and Jan Żmudzki

Abstract

The occurrence of commonly used veterinary antimicrobial agents was investigated in 159 fresh water, 443 fish, and 150 sediment samples from Polish rivers and lakes. The agents included aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, diaminopyrimidines, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides, macrolides, pleuromutilins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines. The analysis was performed by three different sample preparation procedures for each matrix and it was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation source in positive mode, under the same conditions. All analytical methods used were validated and showed good sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The LOQ was in the range from 5 μg/kg to 125 μg/kg for fish samples, from 0.02 μg/L to 10 μg/L for fresh water samples, and from 1 μg/kg to 8 μg/kg for sediment samples.

Open access

Marta Piątkowska, Piotr Jedziniak, Małgorzata Olejnik, Konrad Pietruk, Jan Żmudzki and Andrzej Posyniak

Abstract

Introduction: The paper presents the method of simultaneous determination of 10 illegal azo dyes in feed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique. Material and Methods: The dyes were extracted with hexane, evaporated to dryness, and analysed. Separation was achieved in 7 min in a gradient elution using acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% formic acid (B) as a mobile phase. Results: The validation results showed the repeatability of the method, which was evaluated at three levels (50, 500, and 5,000 μg/kg). All the matrix calibration curves for the working ranges were linear (R2 0.9904 to 1.0), the repeatability was between 2.1% and 24%, and recoveries ranged from 77.9% to 120%. The LOD and LOQ were at 1-2 and 5-10 μg/kg for different dyes, respectively. Furthermore, the method was applied in the homogeneity tests of the in-house prepared feed containing Sudan I at the levels of 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg. Conclusions: A sensitive, selective, and fast multiresidue method was successfully developed and validated. Its robustness was confirmed by the analysis of an experimental feed containing Sudan I.

Open access

Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Andrzej Posyniak, Tomasz Śniegocki, Bartosz Sell, Anna Gajda, Grzegorz Tomczyk and Jan Żmudzki

Abstract

Introduction: The main problem in poultry farming is the difficulty in producing food of animal origin without using antibacterial agents. Because most antibacterial compounds are dispensed in water, some water supply systems can be contaminated by antibiotics which are then administered to the animals unintentionally. This can lead to unexpected increases in antibiotic residues in food of animal origin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the constant exposure of chicken broilers to enrofloxacin affects the withdrawal time of a therapeutic doxycycline that is intentionally administered to the chickens.

Material and Methods: The concentrations of doxycycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were determined by LC-MS/MS in muscles and liver of the chickens.

Results: Doxycycline residue concentrations in the chicken tissues from the group that received trace amounts of enrofloxacin were nearly 50% greater than those of the group that received only doxycycline.

Conclusion: These results indicated that constant exposure to enrofloxacin in trace amounts significantly influences the residual doxycycline concentration in chicken tissues.

Open access

Barbara Woźniak, Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Katarzyna Sielska, Sebastian Witek, Andrzej Posyniak, Krzysztof Niemczuk and Jan Żmudzki

Abstract

Introduction

In the European Union, the use of thyreostatic drugs for fattening slaughter animals has been banned since 1981 under Council Directive 81/602/EEC. For protection of consumer health against unwanted residues and in compliance with Directive 96/23, each EU country must monitor thyreostats in samples of animal origin. This paper presents the results of research on thyreostatic residues carried out in Poland in 2011–2017.

Material and Methods

The material for testing was urine (n = 3,491), drinking water (n = 127), and muscle samples (n = 349) officially collected by Veterinary Sanitary Inspectors in slaughterhouses and farms throughout the country in accordance with the national residue control plan. The samples were examined for the presence of tapazole, thiouracil, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil, and phenylthiouracil using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry through an accredited method.

Results

In four bovine and three porcine urine samples, the permissible thiouracil concentration was exceeded. In one sample of porcine urine, methyl- and propylthiouracil were found. The presence of thiouracil and its derivatives in urine samples is most likely due to feeding animals diet containing cruciferous plants.

Conclusions

The results of research indicate that thyreostats are not used for anabolic purposes in slaughter animals in Poland.

Open access

Krystyna Pohorecka, Tomasz Kiljanek, Maja Antczak, Piotr Skubida, Piotr Semkiw and Andrzej Posyniak

Abstract

Introduction

Amitraz is a formamide exhibiting both acaricidal and insecticidal activity and is frequently used by beekeepers to protect honeybee colonies against Varroa destructor mites. The aim of this apiary trial was to evaluate the impact of honeybee colony fumigation with amitraz on the level of contamination of honey stored in combs.

Material and Methods

Experimental colonies were fumigated four times every four days with one tablet of Apiwarol per treatment. Honey was sampled from combs of brood chambers and combs of supers one day after each amitraz application and from harvested honey. Amitraz marker residues (as a total of amitraz and metabolites containing parts of molecules with properties specific to the 2,4-DMA group, expressed as amitraz) were evaluated in honey.

Results

All analysed samples were contaminated with amitraz metabolites. 2,4-DMA and DMPF were the most frequently determined compounds. The average concentration of amitraz marker residue in honey from groups where a smouldering tablet was located directly in beehives was significantly higher than that of residue in honey from groups with indirect smoke generation. No significant effect on the honey contamination deriving from the place where it was exposed to smoke (combs of brood chambers and supers) was noted. Amitraz marker residues exceeded the MRL in 10% of honey samples from combs.

Conclusion

Fumigation of beehives with amitraz results in contamination of honey stored in combs.