Alica Bartošová, Lenka Blinová, Maroš Sirotiak and Anna Michalíková
The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances.
Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.
Lenka Blinová, Maroš Sirotiak, Alica Bartošová and Maroš Soldán
Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.
Alica Bartošová, Anna Michalíková, Maroš Sirotiak and Maroš Soldán
The aim of this contribution is to compare two common techniques for determining the concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphates in surface water and groundwater. Excess of these nutrients in water can directly affect human health (e.g. methemoglobinaemia) or indirectly through the products of secondary pollution - eutrophication (e.g. cyanotoxins, emanation of hydrogen sulphide, mercaptanes, methane...). Negative impact of nutrients excess in surface water often causes the destruction of water ecosystems, and therefore, common substances of these elements must be monitored and managed. For these experiments two spectrophotometric techniques - ultraviolet spectrophotometry and nutrient photometry were used. These techniques are commonly used for quick and simple analyses of nutrients in waste water. There are calibration curves for each nutrient and for determination of their concentration.