During the Pomeranian phase of the Weichselian glaciation (~17-16 ka), the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley (NW Poland and easternmost Germany) drained water from the Pomeranian ice sheet, while intensive aeolian processes took place across Europe in the foreland of the Scandinavian ice sheet (‘European Sand Belt’). The micromorphology of the quartz grains in the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley shows no traces of these aeolian processes, or only vague signs of aeolian abrasion. This is unique among the aeolian sediments in other Pleistocene ice-marginal valleys in this part of Europe. The study of the surfaces of the quartz grains shows that the supply of grains by streams from the south was minimal, which must be ascribed to the climate deterioration during the Last Glacial Maximum, which resulted in a decrease of the discharge of these extraglacial rivers to the ice-marginal valley.
The sediments of the Cretaceous Gyeokpori Formation in south-western South Korea accumulated in a lake in which mainly siliciclastic rocks were deposited, with some interbedded volcaniclastics. The nearby volcanic activity resulted in unstable lake margins inducing a dominance of gravity-flow deposits. The high sedimentation rate facilitated soft-sediment deformation on the sloping margin. The deposition of numerous gravity-flow deposits resulted in a vertically heterolithic stratification. The slumps are composed of different lithologies, which is expressed in different types of deformation due to the difference in cohesion between sandy and mussy layers within the slumps. Coarser-grained (cohesionless) slumps tend to show more chaotic deformation of their lamination or layering. The difference in slumping behaviour of the cohesive and non-cohesive examples is explained and modelled.
A unique soft-sediment deformation structure is recognized. This structure has not been described before, and we call it ‘envelope structure’. It consists of a conglomerate mass that has become entirely embedded in fine-grained sediment because slope failure took place and the fine-grained material slumped down with the conglomerate ‘at its back’. The cohesive laminated mudstone formed locally slump folds that embedded the non-cohesive overlying conglomerate unit, possibly partly due to the bulldozing effect of the latter. This structure presumably can develop when the density contrast with the underlying and overlying deposits is exceptionally high. The envelope structure should be regarded as a special – and rare – type of a slumping-induced deformation structure.
The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China).
The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.
Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy) were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth) was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves) shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.