The start and the turn are factors that influence performance in different swimming disciplines. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of selected time parameters of the start and the turn with sport performance of 100 m and 1 500 m freestyle finalists in the Olympic Games 2016. Monitored parameters of the start were the start reaction, time under water after the start, and time at a distance of 15 m after the start. The monitored parameters of the turn were the time of 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn, the time under water after the turn, and time reached at a distance of 15 m after the turn. There was any significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed start indicators. The significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed turn indicators was time 5 m before the turn r = 0.952 (p = 0.000); the duration of the turn r = 0.830 (p = 0.011); time at a distance of 15 m after the turn r = 0.886 (p = 0.003). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed start indicators was time under water after the start r = −0.714 (p = 0.047). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed turn indicators was the duration of the turn was r = 0.905 (p = 0.002). The results point out the existing relations between 100 m freestyle and time under water after start and duration of the turn. And for 1 500 m existing relations with time 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn and time at a distance of 15 m after the turn. Therefore, our recommendations for sports practice include development of speed, power and coordination skills with technical execution of the start and the turn into regular swimming training.
Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10) in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11) and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10) between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH), weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and % body fat (% BF). The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximum heart rate (HRmax) were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis) with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02). Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02) and VO2max.kg-1 (p = .00), and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01), BMI (p = .01) and the % BF (p = .00). These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.
The youngest swimming sport included in the Summer Olympic Games since 1984 is synchronized swimming. Since the synchronized swimming is still growing popularity and professionalization, it is important to search for ways to improve sports performance. There are few scientific studies focusing also on the biological and motor indicators of top athletes. The present study examined biological and motor variables of elite synchronized swimmers (SYN, N = 13) in ages of 16.5 ± 3.23 years and compare the frequency of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene genotypes among elite female synchronized swimmers and the non-athletic control group (CON, N = 30) in ages of 16.0 ± 0.6 years. The motor variables were measured using Optojump system before and after water training session. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. The ACE I/D variation differences between groups were identified by Chi-Square test. The results of motor variables obtained were evaluated statistically using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. The strength of association between selected biological and motor variables was measured by Spearman’s correlation. We provided evidence for significant differences of variation of the ACE I/D polymorphism between observed groups. A significant correlation among biological and motor parameters of SYN was demonstrated among the percentage of fat and the time of reflection (p = 0.042), the basal resting heart rate and the jump height (p = 0.006) and among the basal resting heart rate and the power (p = 0.012). The SYN significantly increased only their contact time in jumping (p < 0.016) after the training session. Based on the results we state that the effect of intervention in the stimulation of the reflective capabilities due to the training session in the aquatic environment was not confirmed in the study.