Research was carried out on fruits and seeds of Nymphaea and Nuphar taxa collected from Poland, Latvia and Estonia. The aim of the research was to establish diagnostic features which could enable identification of the examined taxa on the basis of the fruit and seed structure and creating a key to identify them. The examined organs were observed through an optic microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). New diagnostic features were discovered: spotting of fresh pericarp, the range of the fruit shape coefficient, the colour of the rays in the fruit stigma disc, the thickness of the seed testa, ribs in the seeds, and occurrence of the “puzzle shaped” cells on the surface of the testa. The discovered features were used in the taxonomic characteristics.
The list of alien vascular plant species only temporarily occurring in Wielkopolska refers to the previously published list of native and permanently established plants. Together, these two lists document the vascular flora of this region at the beginning of the 21st century. The current list, like the previous one, is a result of critical analysis of both contemporary and historical data, collected since the beginning of the 19th century. All information accessible in herbarium collections, publications and unpublished materials was used. A critical analysis was conducted at the taxonomic, nomenclatural, chorological and habitat levels, based on the verification of negative information not supported by sufficient arguments. The list is presented in an alphabetical order. Information on each species includes: family affinity, life form, geographic and historic status. In cases particularly disputable, the standard characteristic of a species was supplemented with an additional commentary.