Development of floating-leaved vegetation in three lakes of varied trophy (Leczna-Wlodawa Lakeland)
Nymphaeids are a typical component of littoral vegetation in European lakes. In different types of water bodies they create large stands. This group of macrophyte species grows not deeper than 3 metres, but depending on clarity and depth. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage share and biomass of nymphaeids in investigated lakes with varying trophy and way of use. Furthermore, another aim of the study was a comparative analysis of morphometric features among dominant species of nymphaeids. The studied lakes are a group of eutrophic lakes, in various stages of its advancement from the low eutrophic Lake Płotycze Sobiborskie, through the eutrophic Lake Płotycze Urszulińskie to the highly eutrophic Lake Zienkowskie. In the studied lakes, nymphaeids formed a large part of the phytolittoral as well as macrophyte biomass, the smallest in the strongly eutrophic lake, the largest in the eutrophic lake. In the studied lakes appeared both Nymphaea candida species as well as intermediate forms. Neither the use of the lake nor habitat conditions affected the differentiation of the analysed characteristics of Nuphar lutea, while the most sensitive species was Nymphaea candida.
Macrophytes are a group of aquatic organisms affected by constant changes. One of the main factors influencing the rate and direction of these changes is the way of basin management. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of changes in the management of a lake catchment area in an agricultural landscape on the qualitative and quantitative structure of macrophytes and assessment of the ecological status of the lake in question. The study was conducted in the years 1996, 1999 and 2011 in Lake Głębokie Uścimowskie. This lake is small (20.8 ha surface) and shallow (about 6 m depth). In the 1990s in Lake Głębokie Uścimowskie from 14 to 15 plant communities occurred, which occupied 2.9 ha of the lake. This represented only 14.1% of the lake. In 2011 there was a slight growth in the number of phytocenoses (16), and significant increase in the area of phytolittoral - 5.98 ha. In the 1990s the range of ESMI index values, allowed the lake to be categorized as one with poor ecological status, but already in 2011 after a similar analysis, the lake was ranked in the upper limits of moderate ecological status of lakes. One of the main reasons for the rise in the ecological status of Lake Głębokie Uścimowskie, determined on the basis of the macrophyte index, as well as for the slight decline in trophy, was probably a sewerage system built in 2006 in Głębokie village.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the development of rush zones in small lakes and the utilization and condition of surrounding lands. Generally, the width of the helophyte zone increased along shores with gentle slopes (>5˚) that were covered with vegetation. The most favourable conditions for rush development and spread were along sloped areas bordered by farmlands and rural developments. In addition, pasturelands that developed on top of peat accumulation adjacent to lakes were found to facilitate the development of rushes. We observed a positive effect of anthropogenic development, especially agriculture and infrastructure, on stem density and total biomass of Phragmites austalis populations in the lakes studied. However, individual stem biomass of plants was lower. In different parts of the studied lakes, macrophyte distribution patterns were influenced by environmental conditions including nutrient availability, wind exposure, and bottom slope. The poorest macrophyte communities were found in areas within the lakes that were shaded by trees growing on neighboring banks and where slopes were forested rush zones were absent altogether.
Aquatic vegetation greatly impacts lake functions. Forest ecosystems surrounding lakes are effective protection zone of lakes and their associated flora and fauna. The presence of aquatic plants depends on many factors, including the chemical composition and acidity of water, the shape of the lake catchment, the angle of slope along shorelines and the management of surrounding lands. Natural ecosystems throughout Eastern Europe are threatened by anthropogenic activities. Aquatic systems and bogs are particularly sensitive to disturbances. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of land management, forest type and stand age on aquatic plant colonisation within lakes as well as to quantify and qualify the structure of macrophyte communities within two lakes, Płotycze Sobiborskie and Orchowe, located in the Sobibór Landscape Park in western Poland. Even though there were few bogs within the catchment areas and lake buffer zones, where they did occur they had the greatest effect on macrophyte presence. The results of this research indicate that in the absence of anthropogenic disturbances midforest water-bog complexes are relatively stable systems and preserve their natural character. The applied multi-criteria evaluation of macrophytes in the studied lakes and their surrounding buffer zones and catchment areas allowed the lakes to be characterised as lakes with a good ecological status.
The paper presents the multi-functionality of the river valley in ecological, social and economic terms. The biotic and abiotic elements, as well as aspects of its protection and environmental threats were characterized. Successively, based on above research, public participation and SWOT analysis, a variant design was carried out. Finally, the concept of the development of the Bystrzyca River valley and its surroundings was developed, mainly aimed at the protection, enrichment, development of recreation and fulfill social needs in accordance with principles of landscape design and sustainable development.
The Wieprz-Krzna Canal, built in 1961, is one of the longest in Poland (142 km). Although the drainage construction was intended to revitalize the region of wetlands and peat-bogs of the West Polesie, it caused large hydrological changes. Research on catchments of three natural lakes and three retention reservoirs involved cartographic analysis using photointerpretation, as well as the Braun-Blanquet method. In the studied area, between 1939 and 2016 the length of rivers and ditches increased more than three times. Macrophytes covered about 20-27% of the natural lakes water surface, whereas in retention reservoirs the coverage was 12-15.5%. Also a greater diversity of macrophytes occurred in natural lakes. In retention reservoirs it was restricted to only emerged macrophytes.
In urban ecosystems, typically created by humans, it is very difficult to balance the needs of all its inhabitants. Significance of nature in the cities has been perceived since the ancient times. In the city there are many problems associated with the lack or sometimes excess of water, as well as poor quality. In times of water resources decline and their progressive degradation, each aquatic ecosystem should be investigated because of its values. Among the aquatic ecosystems occurring in the cities, there are: river valleys, natural lakes, water reservoirs, as well as small bodies of water. The aim of this study is to raise public awareness about the role of aquatic ecosystems in cities with different sizes and with a varying number of inhabitants. All respondents in each type of city felt the need of water presence in their surroundings and treated it as a necessary part of the proper functioning, as well as a place for rest and recreation. However, lack of management and a poor ecological status of them were noticed
The aim of the study was a hydromorphological valorisation of the river valley in the Roztocze region using the British method - River Habitat Survey (RHS). As a result of field research two numerical indicators HMS (Habitat Modification Score) and HQA (Habitat Quality Assessment) were identified and purity water classes were defined. The river did not fulfil the requirements of the Water Framework Directive, because its state was defined as poor and moderate. On the base of physical and chemical parameters, in the majority of water studied the watercourses were classified to the first class of purity. Only in one segment waters were below the first class, or even out of class.
The Łęczna-Włodawa Plain, known also as the Łęczna-Wlodawa Lakeland, lies within the territory of the largest subregion of the Polesie region, covering over 1,300 km2. The main interest of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland is that it is the oldest in the Central European Lowlands group of about 68 lakes. Among such a large number of lakes there exist all trophic types. However, since the late 1950’s, enormous dynamics of change associated with the disappearance of oligo- and mesotrophic lakes and their transformation into eutrophic, even hypertrophic, lakes have been observed. One of the biocenotic elements of the lakes, which are indicators of these changes, is aquatic plants. The aim of this study was to determine the macrophyte structure of Piaseczno Lake and changes of land use in its surroundings. Piaseczno Lake still represents very high natural values. A reduction in the number of macrophyte communities, which occurred especially in 2008, was a consequence of the fast-growing recreation infrastructure.
From 1976 until 2010 an area of recreation infrastructure in the studied area increased more than 3.5 times, and in the built-up area more than five times, as well as a doubling of the total length of the roads. Meanwhile the surface area of wetlands and peatbogs significantly decreased - more than 11 times.
Long-term changes in the structure of the macrophyte communities show that the number of communities has varied in each year, probably as a consequence of changes in landuse. Analysis showed changes to the surfaces inhabited by macrophytes, which have decreased significantly over only four years, by more than 25%. However, the proportion of rush communities has increased.
The aim of the study was to determine actions towards enrichment of natural aspects of the water reservoir in Zaklików, with consideration of nature protection and social needs. For this purpose, physical and chemical parameters of the reservoir, floristic and physiognomic characteristics of the area, cartographic analysis of land use, natural and touristic valorisation, and the concept of tourism development of the area were considered. The reservoir, based on the ESMI index, rated as moderate ecological status. The highest natural and tourist values, as well as the highest intensity of conflict between them, were located in the north-eastern and central part of the study area. Based on all analyzes, a concept of development of the study area was created, consistent with the local development plan.