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  • Autor: Beti Dejanova x
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The appropriate biomarkers for oxidative stress (OS) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are important in renal pathology. Patients (56) with ESRD were investigated (35 men and 21 women). Patients, with mean age of 45±17 years, defined education, specific HD duration and calculated body mass index (BMI), were exposed to a polysulphone type HD membrane for approximately 4 hours per HD session, 3 times per week. The control group was composed of 31 healthy volunteers. The total antioxidative capacity (TAC) and the antioxidative (AO) enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were assessed. Analyses included Randox Crumlin GB; lipid peroxidation (LP) using its end product, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) (fluorimetric); and a LDL-ox immunoassay (Biomedica gruppe, Vienna, Austria). The TAS was higher in ESRD patients before HD (1.63±0.1 mmol/L) compared to the control group (1.23±0.03 mmol/L).


Objectives: The focus of this study is on anthropometric characteristics of footballers in the Republic of Macedonia, and the aim is to provide normative data for selected anthropometric parameters for adult male footballers in our country.

Material and method: The study included eight hundred (800) adult male footballers, aged 24.06 ± 4.8y (age range 18–35y), who have undertaken routine sport medical examinations over a ten-year period. The football players were divided into six age – specific subgroups (“up to 20”; “up to 22”; “up to 24”; “up to 26”; “up to 28” and “over 28” years). Anthropometric measurements were made by Matiegka's protocols and body composition components were determined.

Results: Average values of body height (178.8 ± 6.7 cm), body weight (77.72 ± 7.9 kg), lean body mass (66.21 ± 6.36 kg), body components (MM% = 53.04; BM% = 17.15; FM% = 14.7%) and a large series of anthropometric measurements which define the footballers' anthropometric dimensions were obtained. The distribution of the adipose tissue regarding the body and limbs showed that the skinfolds were thickest on the lower limbs and thinnest on the arms.

Conclusions: The adult football players in Republic of Macedonia were insignificantly variable in height and body mass from their counter parts from European and American teams. The football players up to 20 year, who played in the senior national football league were lighter and smaller than their older colleagues. The football players aged from 20 to 35 years were insignificantly variable in height, body mass, and anthropometric dimensions of limbs and trunk.