A 3D-CRT involving a 4-field (5-field, 6-field, etc.) technique (photon and electron beams) and an alternative IMRT 7-field technique with 6 MV photon fields for thyroid cancer were compared. The IMRT allows reduction in the dose to the spinal cord of about 12 Gy and permits better coverage of the target volume with smaller standard deviation (average 4.65% for 3D-CRT as compared with 1.81% for IMRT). The time needed to prepare therapy (TPS, dosimetry, preparing boluses and electron aperture) and the session time are about the same for both techniques.
The article proposes a sociological reading of the novel I’ll Take You There by Joyce Carol Oates. Though the book can be classified as an initiation novel, it also constitutes an accusation of the very procedure of initiation as forcing individuals to agree and adapt to unfair social mechanisms. The context of the protagonist’s struggles is provided by the social structure of the early-1960s United States, with its inherent misogyny, anti-Semitism, racism and classism. All these factors shape her destiny in accordance with the logic of social reproduction. A destiny of overwhelming power of allocation, which the heroine is trying to resist. As an academic novel, I’ll Take You There is also an insightful deconstruction of the universalism preached within the Western academic world, and especially philosophy.
The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentration of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels and a possible relationship to predict the mortality rates among hemodialysis patients. The study population comprised 27 subjects, aged 65-70 years. Each patient underwent dialysis thrice a week. Furthermore, the median duration of hemodialysis was 3.5 years. Based on the conducted research, it can be concluded that the concentrations of adrenaline and the level of asymmetric dimethylarginine have predictive value of mortality among hemodialysis patients. Of note, lowering plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration may represent therapeutic target for prevention of progressive renal damage.
In 2011–2014, the occupancy of nest-boxes by secondary hole-nesting birds and their breeding success was investigated in pine stands of the Augustów Forest (North-Eastern Poland). In the studied area of 12600 ha, the share of Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris L. in the stands was 92%. On average, birds occupied 54% and bats 3% of the 224–317 nest boxes controlled yearly. Nest boxes were also used by the Pygmy Owl Glaucidium passerinum L. as food caches. In total, broods of nine secondary hole-nesting species were observed, but only four bird species nested in each year of study. The most numerous species, occupying 53–60% of all boxes each year was the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca Pall. The Great Tit Parus major L. occupied 15–24% and the Coal Tit Periparus ater L. 10–12% of available nest-boxes, while the Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus L. used 2–7% of nest boxes. The yearly breeding success was highest for tits (Great Tit – 52–84%, Coal Tit – 50–72%) and strongly variable for the Pied Flycatchers – 38–78%. Broods were lost due to predation by martens Martes sp. (38%) and great spotted woodpeckers Dendrocopos major L. (6%) as well as nest competition (2%). The nest-boxes were occupied at a constant rate during the following four years after their exposition. Over 67% of the new nest-boxes were occupied annually which means new nest-boxes (up to 4 years) were occupied significantly more often than boxes older than 4 years.
The aim of the study was to verify the accuracy of calculations of dose distributions for electron beams performed using the electron Monte Carlo (eMC) v.10.0.28 algorithm implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems). Implementation of the objective of the study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage the influence of several parameters defined by the user on the calculation accuracy was assessed. After selecting a set of parameters for which the best results were obtained a series of tests were carried. The tests were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Polish Society of Medical Physics (PSMP). The calculation and measurement of dose rate under reference conditions for semi quadratic and shaped fields were compared by individual cut-outs. We compared the calculated and measured percent depth doses, profiles and output factors for beams with an energy of 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 MeV, for semi quadratic fields and for three different SSDs 100, 110, and 120 cm. All tests were carried out for beams generated in the Varian 2300CD Clinac linear accelerator. The results obtained during the first stage of the study demonstrated that the highest compliance between the calculations and measurements were obtained for the mean statistical uncertainty equal to 1, and the parameter responsible for smoothing the statistical noise defined as medium. Comparisons were made showing similar compliance calculations and measurements for the calculation grid of 0.1 cm and 0.25 cm and therefore the remaining part of the study was carried out for these two grids. In stage 2 it was demonstrated that the use of calculation grid of 0.1 cm allows for greater compliance of calculations and measurements. For energy 12, 15 and 18 MeV discrepancies between calculations and measurements, in most cases, did not exceed the PSMP action levels. The biggest differences between measurements and calculations were obtained for 6 MeV energy, for smallest fields and large SSD distances. Despite these discrepancies between calculations the model was adopted for clinical use.