Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.
Anna Pasiecznik-Dominiak, Andrzej Tiukało and Grzegorz Dumieński
Flooding constitutes one of the main natural hazards in Poland, which causes enormous social, economic and environmental losses. The main causes of the occurrence of floods include intensive rainfall, rapid melting of snow and ice cover, as well as strong gusts of wind from the sea. Based on the resilience theory (resistance, elasticity), which constitutes an efficient tool for the description of the social-ecological system capability or components thereof to mitigate the effects of dangerous events, as well as the capability of reconstructing and adapting the system to new conditions, the authors have analysed the exposure of Polish lakes to flood risks with a probability of occurrence Q0.2%, Q1% and Q10%. In order to determine the level of exposure of lakes to the risk of flooding by flood waters, studies were conducted using the flood hazard and flood risk maps which were developed under the Project entitled “IT System of the Country’s Protection against Extreme Hazards”. The result of the efforts of the group of authors is the determination of the number of lakes, which are located in the flood risk area Q0.2%, Q1% and Q10%, including division into risk level groups (low, moderate and high). The results presented in the paper may constitute a contribution to further, more detailed studies concerning assessment of the vulnerability of Polish lakes located in the flood prone area.
Marta Bedryj, Grzegorz Dumieński and Andrzej Tiukało
There is a potential threat to lakes and water reservoirs from contamination released due to the flooding of objects that can pose an environmental risk (cemeteries, sewage treatment plants, sewage pumping stations, landfills and industrial plants) located in areas prone to inundation. The analysis covered large lakes and reservoirs (those with the area of over 50 ha), identified as bodies of surface water located in areas potentially affected by flooding of high (10%), medium (1%) and low (0.2%) probability of occurrence. These areas are presented on flood hazard maps and flood risk maps. The results of analyses revealed that the scale of potential threat to Polish lakes, defined as bodies of surface water, with contamination from objects of environmental flood risk is marginal, however, in the case of reservoirs – significant.