The analyses of the nonconformity of products are made in order to achieve the desired level of their quality. This is also the case in the analyzed enterprise located in south-eastern Poland. Due to production character in this enterprise to identify the incompatibilities of products the non-destructive tests are used. In the current approach to quality after identified the nonconformities the cause her arise were determined, it was noted in order to use by statistical analyzes. Unfortunately, no deeper qualitative analyzes were made which could specify the source of its creation. Therefore, it was considered that it is necessary to propose to use (near current actions according to non-destructive tests) the sequence of quality management instruments. In order to improve the quality control actions, the sequence of techniques which complement each other, i.e. non-destructive tests, Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method, was proposed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sequence, the rear cover of the bearing turbine was selected as the subject of the analysis. The choice was conditioned by the unit character of production, which till now was discouraged a detailed analysis of sources of nonconformities. After analyzed the product with used the fluorescent method the nonconformities were identified on the rear cover of the bearing turbine, which was the porosity cluster. In order to identify the causes these nonconformities the Ishikawa diagram was drawn up. Next, the selected main causes (i.e. supplier of the product and nonconformities created during the production of the product) were analyzed the 5Why method in order to identify the source cause of the problem. In this case, it was the nonconformity material from the supplier. The proposed sequence, which uses the minimal resources let to show the wide range of information, which should be used to the improvement of quality. The presented the set of activities can be practised in each of the enterprises to analyze quality problems in order to identify the nonconformities and their causes.
The study presents the results of analysis of the possibilities of measuring equipment supervision, taking into account the requirements of the ISO 9001: 2015 standard and risk management present there. As it has been shown, it is possible to use (mentioned in point 6.1 of indicated standard) a risk management method for skilfully managing a measuring equipment. Orientation of business to risk is one of the elements of the ISO 9001 standard, which does not specify exactly how the method of its implementation should looks like. Generally, it orders to manage risk wherever goals appear. The targets also appear in the field of supervision of measuring equipment. Therefore, in the elaboration, apart from the requirements analysis, the concept of a five-stage methodology for implementing a risk-based approach to management of measurement equipment was presented. The matrix method was used to assess the risk. Within this method two elements were assessed: probability and potential effects of the risk occurrence. Application of the proposed concept may contribute to a more efficient and effective management of measuring instruments.
Law requires from employers to assess occupational risk in workplaces. A well-executed occupational risk assessment promotes the improve-ment of working conditions and reduces a negative impacts on employees’ health and life. Employers by conducting occupational risk assess-ment not only meet legal requirements but also benefit from it in two ways. They eliminate loss of an enterprise connected with employees’ absence, and they also decrease the probability of high compensation pay due to situations that have a destructive influence on the employees’ health. However, in order to benefit from such actions, firstly, it is necessary to select a risk assessment method properly, then to apply it and implement preventive measures. The paper presents the results of the occupational risk assessment carried out on the example of a CNC ma-chine operator by means three-stage methods in accordance with the PN-N-18001, PHA and Risc Score. Despite the subjectivity of the assess-ment, there were differences in the results. Thus, it is advisable to choose a risk assessment method skilfully, for example by comparing several similar methods.
Increasing awareness and the number of activities for environmental protection has influenced the development of environmental management systems. Currently, there is a wide range of environmental management systems that can be implemented thus organizations can choose which system suits their activities best. Among small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, the most popular is a system based on the ISO 14001 standard. Therefore, it seems advisable to promote the skillful implementation of this system. The study was devoted to this issue. It pointed out that the participation of an external consultant, the size of the enterprise as well as the nature of the activity in small and medium manufacturing enterprises has a small importance at the time of its implementation. To implement such a system skillfully, preparation work period for designing and implementing should last about 9 - 12 months.
The research of railway track surfaces is aimed at improving the quality of railway infrastructure and providing the chance of improving the safety of driving. Therefore, it is advisable to constantly monitor track surface, but the research itself is not innovative because it is based on a known procedure. The crucial element are the techniques that allow to delve into the sources of problems. The aim of the article is to use the selected instruments of quality management to analyze the causes of track twist at high (180 km/h) speed of driving. The analysis of the causes of track twist was done on the basis of results from the measurement of one kilometer track section of the Krakow Glowny - Medyka route, which was made by using the TEC measuring device in April 2018. It was inferred that it is impossible to reach 180 km/h without track twist. In order to identify the causes of track twist it was proposed to use the selected sequence of quality management instruments, i.e.: brainstorming, Ishikawa diagram and the 5Why method. The identified causes of track twist include the abrasion of rail, scratches and exploitation point. The analysis and conclusions drawn from it may be useful in the analysis of other problems in railway transport as well as production and service industries.
A photocode in Polish is a common name for a two-dimensional code, which is characterized by higher information capacity than a traditional barcode. The paper analyses the use of the two-dimensional coding system - DataMatrix to identify and classify the material stream in the production process. The analysis showed the effectiveness of the implementation of the coding system in the context of increased availability, machine use and increased product quality. The improvement in the production process is confirmed by an increase in the OEE index. As part of further improvement measures, the coding system should be implemented throughout the enterprise, its compatibility with existing systems should be ensured and applied to all products.
All castings can have defects caused by, for example, deviations in material characteristics, structure or properties, but the skillful use of available technologies and quality management tools allows for the detection and elimination of casting incompatibilities as well as the prevention of their recurrence in the future. The aim of the article was to analyse the types of defects in castings, locate the areas with the most frequent occurrence of defects and identify the reasons for the presence of defects in castings of the control panel and its cover. The paper presents the usefulness of a combination of quality management instruments for diagnosing material discontinuities in the analyzed castings.
As part of continuous quality improvement in well-managed enterprises, identifying unconformity should initiate actions to find their causes. Therefore, it was proposed to the enterprise located in Podkarpacie to use in the sequential way the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The aim was to analyse of unconformity (porosity cluster) on the turbine outlet nozzle and identify the root of its creation. In the enterprise, the quality analysis of the products with a fluorescent method was carried out, but after identifying the unconformity, non-analysis of their reason for their occurrence was not practiced. Therefore, it was intentional to propose the use of sequence i.e. Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method to identify the root of unconformity. The subject of study was the turbine outlet nozzle, on which the fluorescent method the porosity cluster was identified. With the use of the Ishikawa diagram, the main cause of the problem was pointed (unconformity during production), and by the 5Why method the root cause of the problem, i.e. unconformity material from the supplier, was identified. The proposed method sequence is a simple and effective way to make analyses of unconformities and it can be used in different products and service enterprises.
Piotr Saja, Artur Woźny, Andrzej Pacana and Magdalena Dobosz
The article raises the issue of risk assessment and its impact on the quality and safety of work. During the assessment of the turning lathe position additional components associated with the jobs personalization were taken into account. Paragraph 2 item 7 of the Regulation of the Minister of Laborr and Social Policy of 26 September 1997 on general safety regulations defines occupational risk as the likelihood of an adverse event. The authors drew attention to the reality of the accident, which sometimes depends on the predisposition of the employee. It turns out that a correct estimation of the probability of occurrence of the accident to be able to react in a timely way seems extremely important.. This parameter will be assessed more accurately if we take into account a number of additional components resulting from the characteristics of the employee. The results of the personalized assessment of risk may allow appropriate planning of corrective and preventive actions.