Animal health and welfare can be assessed using biochemical and haematological markers of the blood. The values of these parameters depend in part on the quantity and quality of feed ingredients, i.e. feed protein and feed additives. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of including fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) in dry feeding system on haematological and biochemical blood parameters of sows and piglets. The experimental material comprised 30 primiparous gilts and 30 multiparous sows after their second lactation. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal size – control and experimental. The animals in control groups CG (15 gilts) and CS (15 sows) received a standard diet for pregnant or lactating sows, depending on the reproductive period. Experimental groups EG and ES were 15 gilts and 15 multiparous sows, respectively, receiving feed with a 4% share of FRSM in place of soybean meal up to 100 d of gestation. In addition, from 100 d of gestation to 7 d of lactation, the sows in these groups received feed with a 9% share of FRSM, and then again a diet with a 4% share of FRSM until the end of lactation. Blood samples were taken from 6 animals from each group in two periods: at 100 days of pregnancy (late pregnancy) and at 27 days of lactation (late lactation). Blood from piglets was taken at 27 days of age (before weaning), from two piglets from each sow (one gilt and one barrow), taking into account the average body weight in the litter. Haematological parameters: Ht, Hb and RBC were determined in whole blood. The plasma content of minerals, activity of selected enzymes and biochemical parameters of sows, gilts and piglets were determined. The diet containing fermented rapeseed meal, fed to pregnant and lactating sows, increased the level of Ht and Hb and RBC content and mineral content (phosphorus, calcium and iron) in the plasma. This effect was mainly observed in primiparous sows. The inclusion of FRSM in the diet of sows reduced the plasma content of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in sows and piglets, as well as liver enzyme activity, particularly AST in piglets. The use of fermented rapeseed meal in sow diet resulted in better use of mineral compounds, improvement of production effects and health parameters of sow and piglet blood.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Canibe N., Jensen B.B. (2012). Fermented liquid feed – microbial and nutritional aspects and impact on enteric diseases in pigs. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech., 173: 17–40.
Canibe N., Højberg O., Badsberg J.H., Jensen B.B. (2007). Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets. J. Anim. Sci., 85: 2959–2971.
Cheng Y.H., Su L.W., Horng Y.B., Yu Y.H. (2019). Effects of soybean meal fermented by Lacto-bacillus species and Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and fecal bacteria in weaning piglets. Ann. Anim. Sci., 19: 1051–1062.
Chi C.H., Cho S.J. (2016). Improvement of bioactivity of soybean meal by solid-state fermentation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens versus Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LWT – Food Sci. Tech., 68: 619–625.
Chiang G., Lu W.Q., Piao X.S., Hu J.K., Gong L.M., Thacker P.A. (2010). Effects of feeding solid-state fermented rapeseed meal on performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Asian Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 23: 263–271.
Choct M., Dersjant-Li Y., Mc Leish J., Peisker M. (2010). Soy oligosaccharides and soluble non-starch polysaccharides: A review of digestion, nutritive and anti-nutritive effects in pigs and poultry. Asian Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 23: 1386–1398.
Czech A. (2007). Efficacy of phytase in animal diets. Med. Veter., 63: 1034–1039.
Czech A., Grela E.R. (2004). Biochemical and haematological blood parameters of sows during pregnancy and lactation fed the diet with different source and activity of phytase. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 116: 211–223.
Czech A., Grela E.R., Mokrzycka A., Pejsak Z. (2010). Efficacy of mannanoligosaccharides additive to sows diets on colostrum, blood immunoglobulin content and production parameters of piglets. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 13: 525–531.
Czech A., Grela E., Klebaniuk R., Ognik K., Samolińska W. (2018). Polish crossbred pigs’ blood haematological parameters depending on their age and physiological state. Ann. Warsaw Univ. Life Sci. – SGGW – Anim. Sci., 56: 185–195.
Dingyuan F., Jianjun Z. (2007). Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of rapeseed meal and its utilization as a feed ingredient for animal. International Consultative Group for Research on Rapeseed, Wuhan, China, pp. 265–271.
El-Batal A., Abdel Karem H. (2001). Phytase production and phytic acid reduction in rapeseed meal by Aspergillus niger during solid state fermentation. Food Res. Int., 34: 715–720.
Fazhi X., Lvmu L., Jiaping X., Kun Q., Zhide Z., Zhangyi L. (2011). Effects of fermented rapeseed meal on growth performance and serum parameters in ducks. Asian Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 24: 678–684.
Florou-Paneri P., Christaki E., Giannenas I., Bonos E., Skoufos I., Tsinas A., Tzora A., Peng J. (2014). Alternative protein sources to soybean meal in pig diets. J. Food Agric. Environ., 12: 655–660.
Friendship R.M., Henry S.C. (1996). Cardiovascular system, haematology and clinical chemistry. In: Diseases of swine, Leman A.D., Straw B.E., Mengeling W.L., D’Allaire S., Taylor D.J. (eds). Iowa State Univ. Press, USA, pp. 3–11.
Giannini E., Botta F., Fasoli A., Ceppa P., Risso D., Lantieri P.B., Celle G., Tes-ta R. (1999). Progressive liver functional impairment is associated with an increase in AST/ALT ratio. Dig. Dis. Sci., 44: 1249–1253.
Grela E.R., Czech A., Kiesz M., Wlazło Ł., Nowakowicz-Dębek B. (2019). A fermented rapeseed meal additive: Effects on production performance, nutrient digestibility, colostrum immunoglobulin content and microbial flora in sows. Anim. Nutr., 5: 373–379.
Gu C., Pan H., Sun Z., Qin G. (2010). Effect of soybean variety on anti-nutritional factors content, and growth performance and nutrients metabolism in rat. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 11: 1048–1056.
Guggenbuhl P., Simões Nunes C. (2007). Effects of two phytases on the ileal apparent digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileo-rectal anastomosed pigs fed on a maize–rapeseed meal diet. Liv. Sci., 109: 261–263.
Hu Y., Ge C., Yuan W., Zhu R., Zhang W., Du L., Xue J. (2010). Characterization of fermented black soybean natto inoculated with Bacillus natto during fermentation. J. Sci. Food Agric., 90: 1194–1202.
Hung A.T.Y., Su T.M., Liao C.W., Lu J.J. (2008). Effect of probiotic combination fermented soybean meal on growth performance, lipid metabolism and immunological response of growing-finishing pigs. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 3: 431–436.
Iqbal S., Younas U., Sirajuddin Chan K.W., Sarfraz R.A., Uddin K. (2012). Proximate composition and antioxidant potential of leaves from three varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): a comparative study. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13: 6651–6664.
Jakobsen G.V., Jensen B.B., Knudsen K.E.B., Canibe N. (2015). Improving the nutritional value of rapeseed cake and wheat dried distillers grains with solubles by addition of enzymes during liquid fermentation. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech., 208: 198–213.
Jensen M.T. (1998). Microbial production of skatole in the digestive tract of entire male pigs. In: Skatole and boar taint, Jensen K. (ed.). Danish Meat Research Institute, Roskilde, pp. 41–75.
Jongbloed A.W., Mroz Z., vander Weij-Jongbloed R., Kemme P.A. (2000). The effects of microbial phytase, organic acids and their interaction in diets for growing pigs. Liv. Prod. Sci., 67: 113–122.
Juanpere J., Pérez-Vendrell A.M., Angulo E., Brufau J. (2005). Assessment of potential interactions between phytase and glycosidase enzyme supplementation on nutrient digestibility in broilers. Poultry Sci., 84: 571–580.
Kim J.C., Simmins P.H., Mullan B.P., Pluske J.R. (2005). The effect of wheat phosphorus content and supplemental enzymes on digestibility and growth performance of weaner pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 118: 139–152.
Kim Y.G., Shinde P., Choi J.Y., Kwon M.S., Chae B.J. (2007). Effects of feeding fungal and bacterial fermented soya proteins on blood hematology, enzymes and immune cell populations in weaned pigs. Ann. Anim. Res. Sci., 18: 32–37.
Klem T.B., Bleken E., Morberg H., Thoresen S.I., Framstad T. (2010). Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for Norwegian crossbreed grower pigs. Vet. Clin. Path., 39: 221–226.
Liesegang A., Loch L., Bürgi E., Risteli J. (2005). Influence of phytase added to a vegetarian diet on bone metabolism in pregnant and lactating sows. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 89: 120–128.
Marco-Ramell A., Arroyo L., Peña R., Pato R., Saco Y., Fraile L., Bassols A. (2016). Biochemical and proteomic analyses of the physiological response induced by individual housing in gilts provide new potential stress markers. BMC Vet. Res., 12: 265.
Missotten J.A., Michiels J., Degroote J., De Smet S. (2015). Fermented liquid feed for pigs: an ancient technique for the future. J Anim. Sci. Biotechnol., 6: 4.
Navarro D.M.D.L., Liu Y., Bruun T.S., Stein H.H. (2017). Amino acid digestibility by wean-ling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients. J. Anim. Sci., 95: 2658–2669.
Nega T. (2018). Review on nutritional limitations and opportunities of using rapeseed meal and other rape seed by-products in animal feeding. J. Nutr. Health Food Eng., 8: 43–48.
NRS (2012). Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th rev. ed. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
Pedersen C., Boersma M.G., Stein H.H. (2007). Digestibility of energy and phosphorus in ten samples of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 85: 1168–1176.
Shi C., He J., Yu J., Yu B., Mao X., Zheng P., Huang Z., Chen D. (2015). Amino acid, phosphorus, and energy digestibility of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 93: 2916–2925.
Shi C., He J., Wang J., Yu J., Yu B., Mao X., Zheng P., Huang Z., Chen D. (2016). Effects of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and serum parameters in growing pigs. Anim. Sci. J., 87: 557–563.
Smiricky-Tjardes M.R., Grieshop C.M., Flickinger E.A., Bauer L.L., Fahey G.C. (2003). Dietary galactooligosacharydes affect ileal total-tract nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial concentrations, and ileal fermentative characteristics of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 81: 2535–2545.
Stein H.H., Sauber T.E., Rice D.W., Hinds M.A., Smith B.L., Dana G., Peters D.N., Hunst P. (2009). Growth performance and carcass composition of pigs fed corn grain from DASØ15Ø7-1 (Herculex I) Hybrids1. Prof. Anim. Sci., 25: 689–694.
Su L.W., Cheng Y.H., Hsiao F.S., Han J.C., Yu Y.H. (2018). Optimization of mixed solid-state fermentation of soybean meal by Lactobacillus species and Clostridium butyricum. Pol. J. Micro-biol., 67: 297–305.
Swaminathan R. (2001). Biochemical markers of bone turnover. Clin. Chim. Acta, 313: 95–105.
Tomaszewska E., Muszyński S., Dobrowolski P., Kamiński D., Czech A., Gre-la E.R., Wiącek D., Tomczyk-Warunek A. (2019). Dried fermented post-extraction rape-seed meal given to sows as an alternative protein source for soybean meal during pregnancy improves bone development of their offspring. Liv. Sci., 224: 60–68.
Vig A.P., Walia A. (2001). Beneficial effects of Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation on reduction of glucosinolates, fibre and phytic acid in rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal. Bioresour. Technol., 78: 309–312.
Webb P. (2010). Thyroid hormone receptor and lipid regulation. Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs, 11: 1135–1142.
Winnicka A. (2011). Reference values of basic laboratory tests in veterinary science (in Polish). 5th rev. exp. ed., SGGW, Warszawa.
Woyengo T.A., Beltranena E., Zijlstra R.T. (2017). Effect of anti-nutritional factors of oil-seed co-products on feed intake of pigs and poultry. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech., 233: 76–86.
Yang Y.X., Heo S., Jin Z., Yun J.H., Choi J.Y., Yoon S.Y., Park M.S., Yang B.K., Chae B.J. (2009). Effects of lysine intake during late gestation and lactation on blood metabolites, hormones, milk composition and reproductive performance in primiparous and multiparous sows. Anim Reprod. Sci., 112: 199–214.
Yonejima Y., Ushida K., Mori Y. (2013). Effect of lactic acid bacteria on lipid metabolism and fat synthesis in mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci. Microbiota Food Health, 32: 51–58.