Genetic Diversity of an Australian Santalum album Collection – Implications For Tree Improvement Potential

Open access

Abstract

The Forest Products Commission of Western Australia manages a sandalwood (Santalum spp.) core germplasm collection at Kununurra in the states far north. This collection serves as a significant seed source for sandalwood plantations in the area and remains an important resource for ongoing research. The collection contains S. album trees sourced from Indian arboreta, along with a few trees from West Timor, Indonesia. Also present are representatives of S. macgregorii from Papua New Guinea and S. austrocaledonicum from Vanuatu and/or New Caledonia. Despite the apparently diverse seed origins, the genetic background of many of the accessions remains vague. In this study, diversity and relatedness was assessed by nuclear and chloroplast RFLPs and a phylogeny was inferred. Nuclear RFLPs revealed very low levels of genetic diversity for a tree species, with an observed and expected heterozygosity (Ho and He) of 0.047. Nineteen genotypes were identified within the 233 S. album individuals sampled, with only one tree known to have originated from Timor being differentiated from Indian material. Other trees thought to have come from Timor grouped with those believed to be from India, indicating they were either incorrectly labelled or sourced from heavily modified populations. Despite the poor sample size, chloroplast RFLP analysis revealed no genetic distinction between the Timorese and Indian S. album, which supports the theory of human mediated seed dispersal from Timor to India. The structure of the phylogeny and associated relatedness has assisted in the establishment of seed orchards, designed to ensure maximum diversity is maintained through limiting the proximity of highly related trees. Finally, in light of these and other findings, a hypothesis concerning the evolution of S. album is proposed.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • ALDRICH P. R. and J. DOEBLEY (1992): Restriction fragment variation in the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor: Theor. Appl. Genet. 85: 293-302.

  • ANONYMOUS (2003): Geology of Timor Leste. (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) www.unescap.org/esd/water/publications/mineral/amrs/vol17: Bangkok)

  • AUSTERLITZ F. S. MARIETTE N. MACHON P.-H. GOUYON and B. GODELLE (2000): Effects of colonization processes on genetic diversity: Differences between annual plants and tree species: Genetics 154: 1309-1321.

  • BOTTIN L. A. VAILLANT P. SIRE C. CARDI and J. M. BOUVET (2005a): Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Santalum austrocaledonicum Santalaceae: Mol. Ecol. Notes 5: 800-802.

  • BOTTIN L. D. VERHAEGEN J. TASSIN I. OLIVIERI A. VAILLANT and J. M. BOUVET (2005b): Genetic diversity and population structure of an insular tree Santalum austrocaledonicum in New Caledonian archipelago: Mol. Ecol. 14: 1979-1989.

  • BUTCHER P. A. G. F. MORAN and H. D. PERKINS (1998): RFLP diversity in the nuclear genome of Acacia mangium: Heredity 81: 205-213.

  • BYRNE M. (2008): Phylogeny diversity and evolution of eucalypts. pp. 303-346. In: Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Vol. 1 Part E. Edited by A. SHARMA and SHARMA A. Vol. 1 Oxford & IBH Publishing Co New Delhi.

  • BYRNE M. B. MACDONALD and J. E. BRAND (2003a): Phylogeography and divergence in the chloroplast genome of Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum): Heredity 91: 389-395.

  • BYRNE M. B. MACDONALD and J. E. BRAND (2003b): Regional genetic differentiation in Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) as revealed by nuclear RFLP analysis: Theor. Appl. Genet. 107: 1208-1214.

  • DONE C. P. KIMBER and R. UNDERWOOD: (2004): Development of the Indian sandalwood industry on the Ord River irrigation area. In: Prospects for high-value hardwood timber plantations in the ‘dry’ tropics of northern Australia: 19th-21st October 2004; Mareeba: http://www.plantations2020.com.au/reports/pfnq/acrobat/1-7_done_et_al.pdf 1-8.

  • FELSENSTIEN J. (1989): PHYLIP - Phylogeny Inference Package (Version 3.2): Cladistics 5: 164-166.

  • FRANKIE G. W. P. A. OPLER and K. S. BAWA (1976): Foraging behaviour of solitary bees: Implications for outcrossing of a neotropical forest tree species: J. Ecol. 64: 1049-1057.

  • GLAUBITZ J. C. Y. EL-KASSABY and J. CARLSSON (2000): Nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of genetic diversity in western red cedar: Can. J. Forest Res. 30: 379-389.

  • HARBAUGH D. T. and B. G. BALDWIN (2007): Phylogeny and biogeography of the sandalwoods (Santalum Santalaceae): Repeated dispersals throughout the Pacific: Am. J. Bot. 64: 1028-1040.

  • HEWSON H. J. and A. S. GEORGE (1984): Santalum in Flora of Australia. Edited by Vol. 22 Australian Government Publishing Service Canberra.

  • JONES C. G. E. L. GHISALBERTI J. A. PLUMMER and E. L. BARBOUR (2006): Quantitative co-occurrence of sesquiterpenes; a tool for elucidating their biosynthesis in Indian sandalwood Santalum album: Phytochemistry 67: 2463-2468.

  • MCDONALD W. M. M. RAWLINGS P. A. BUTCHER and J. C. BELL (2003): Regional divergence and inbreeding in Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae): Aust. J. Bot. 51: 393-403.

  • MCKINNELL F. H. (1990): Status of management and silviculture research of sandalwood in Western Australia and Indonesia. pp. 19-25. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific April 9-11 1990. Edited by L. HAMILTON and CONRAD C. E. Vol. PSW-122 US Forest Service Honolulu Hawaii.

  • MICHAUX B. (2001): Dispersal versus vicariance artifice rather than contest. pp. 311-318. In: Faunal and floral migrations and evolution in SE Asia-Australasia. Edited by I. METCALFE SMITH J. M. B. MORWOOD M. and DAVIDSON I. Vol. AA Balkema Publishers Lisse.

  • MUIR K. M. BYRNE E. L. BARBOUR M. C. COX and J. E. D. FOX (2007): High levels of outcrossing in a family trial of Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum): Silvae Genet. 56: 222-230.

  • NEWTON A. C. T. R. ALLNUTT A. C. M. GILLIES A. J. LOWE and R. A. ENNOS (1999): Molecular phylogeography intraspecific variation and the conservation of tree species: Trends Ecol. Evol. 14: 140-145.

  • OLSSON T. D. LINDGREN and B. LI (2001): Balancing genetic gain and relatedness in seed orchards: Silvae Genet. 50: 222-227.

  • OUTLAW D. C. and G. VOELKER (2008): Pliocene climatic change in insular Southeast Asia as an engine of diversification in Ficedula flycatchers: J. Biogeogr. 35: 739-752.

  • PARKER P. G. A. A. SNOW M. D. SCHUG G. C. BOOTON and P. A. FUERST (1998): What molecules can tell us about populations: Choosing and using a molecular marker: Ecology 79: 361-382.

  • PEAKALL R. D. EBERT L. J. SCOTT P. F. MEAGHER and C. A. OFFORD (2003): Comparative genetic study confirms exceptionally low genetic variation in the ancient and endangered relictual conifer Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae): Mol. Ecol. 12: 2331-2343.

  • PEAKALL R. and P. SMOUSE (2006): GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research: Mol. Ecol. Notes 6: 288-295.

  • PLOWRIGHT R. C. and C. GALEN (1985): Landmarks or obstacles: The effects of spatial heterogeneity on bumble bee foraging behavior: Oikos 44: 459-464.

  • POWELL W. M. MORGANTE C. ANDRE M. HANAFEY J. Vogel S. TINGEY and A. RAFALSKI (1996): The comparison of RFLP RAPD AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis: Mol. Breeding 2: 225-238.

  • RAI S. N. (1990): Status and cultivation of sandalwood in India. pp. 66-71. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific April 9-11 1990. Edited by L. HAMILTON and CONRAD C. E. Vol. 122 US Forest Service Honolulu Hawaii.

  • RIESEBERG L. S. BECKSTROM-STERNBERG and K. DOAN (1990): Helianthus annuus ssp. Texanus has chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal RNA genes of Helianthus debilis ssp. cucumerifolius: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 593-597.

  • SHINOZAKI K. M. OHME M. TANAKA T. WAKASUGI N. HAYASHIDA T. MATSUBAYASHI N. ZAITA J. CHUNWONGSE and J. OBOKATA (1986): The complete nucleotide sequence of the tobacco chloroplast genome: Its gene organization and expression: EMBOJ 5: 2043-2049.

  • SINDHU VEERENDRA H. C. and H. S. ANANTHAPADMANABHO (1996): The breeding system in sandal (Santalum album L.): Silvae Genet. 45: 188-190.

  • SMITH R. L. and K. J. SYTSMA (1990): Evolution of Populus nigra (Sect. Aigeiros): Introgressive hybridization and the chloroplast contribution of Populus alba (Sect. Populus): Am. J. Bot. 77: 1176-1187.

  • SOLTIS D. E. P. S. SOLTIS T. G. COLLIER and M. L. EDGERTON (1991): Chloroplast DNA variation within and among genera of the Heuchera group (Saxifragaceae): Evidence for chloroplast transfer and paraphyly: Am. J. Bot. 78: 1091-1112.

  • SOUTHERN E. M. (1975): Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis: J. Mol. Biol. 98: 503-517.

  • SUGIURA M. K. SHINOZAKI N. ZAITA M. KUSUDA and M. KUMANO (1986): Clone bank of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplast genome as a set of overlapping restriction endonuclease fragments: mapping of eleven ribosomal protein genes: Plant Science 44: 211-217.

  • SUMA T. B. and M. BALASUNDARAN (2003): Isozyme variation in five provenances of Santalum album in India: Aust. J. Bot. 51: 243-249.

  • SYSTMA K. J. and L. D. GOTTLIEB (1986): Chloroplast DNA evolution and phylogenetic relationships in Clarkia Sect. Peripetasma (Onagraceae): Evolution 40: 1248-1261.

  • TURNER M. E. J. C. STEPHENS and W. W. ANDERSON (1982): Homozygosity and patch structure in plant populations as a result of nearest-neighbor pollination: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 203-207.

  • WATERS E. R. and B. A. SCHAAL (1991): No variation is detected in the chloroplast genome of Pinus torreyana: Can. J. Forest Res. 21: 1832-1835.

  • WOLFE A. D. and W. J. ELISENS (1995): Evidence of chloroplast capture and pollen-mediated gene flow in Penstemon sect. Peltanthera (Scrophulariaceae): Syst. Biol. 20: 395-412.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.741
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.651

CiteScore 2018: 0.77

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.362

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 145 96 15
PDF Downloads 90 68 12