According to the applicable regulations, in the case of a decision on the location of an investment consisting in the construction and commissioning of a helicopter landing field, it is necessary to carry out an environmental impact assessment. At the same time, due to the emission of noise related to the expected change of acoustic climate parameters, the indicators required under the applicable law related to building acoustics and also impact of vibration on the structure of buildings should be taken into account. The article discusses particular groups of issues related to the assessment of the impact of helicopter landing field on the environment and the hospital building. On the basis of the presented results of analyzes, a postulate concerning the necessity of introducing a comprehensive assessment methodology, including specific groups of issues, was formulated.
Suborbital platforms are one of alternatives for satellites. They offer cheaper access to space to perform broad range of scientific and technology R&D. One of suborbital platforms are sounding rockets, which are suitable for these applications. A concept of scientific mission utilizing the sounding rocket is presented by author in this paper. The novelty of this mission is the operational responsive launch approach, which presents the example of the mission which responds for payload user needs, not payload contest approach, which is often in scientific community competing for payload space in space agency sounding rocket launch campaigns. The main mission goal is to perform astronomical observation of NEO using IR/VIS telescope. The secondary goal is to qualify the instrument for use on astronomical satellite observatory and raise its technology readiness level from TRL 6 to TRL 8. The expected mission output is to gain scientific data on NEO object and perform new IR/VIS optoelectronic instrument technology validation.
This article presents the results of the application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) to measurements of in-plane shear modulus and strength of three different carbon fiber reinforced laminates. Three different approaches to shear strain calculations via DIC are evaluated and compared with standard strain gage measurements. Calculation of shear strain based on averaging DIC strain values of strain gages area in most cases yielded results closest to strain gages, while measurements based on single point strain measuring differed the most from strain gages. These results are attributed to shear strain distribution in the center area of the specimen. Thermoplastic matrix fabric reinforced composite had the lowest shear strength at 5% of shear strain, but the highest ultimate shear strength and strain at failure. Of thermosetting materials, laminate reinforced with unidirectional carbon fiber had shear modulus about 10% lower, than fabric reinforced laminate, but higher ultimate strength and strain at failure. This behavior is attributed to the presence of weaves in fabric reinforcing the laminate, causing shear stiffening of the material, but lowering its ability to deform under shear loading.
Authors showed the influence of stabilization of the honeycomb core on shape of the composite sandwich test panel. Adhesive film laid on core ramps and cured with suitable cure cycle served as core stabilizer. Test panel geometry included different ramp angles (20° and 30°). To verify stabilization process a technology trial was performed. Three test panels were manufactured (3-stage, 1-stage and 1-stage with stabilized core). All test panels were manufactured in OoA process (Out of Autoclave). Panel surfaces were scanned with 3D scanner and compared with the reference CAD model. Both outer skin and inner skin were manufactured in Automated Fiber Placement Laboratory of Warsaw Institute of Aviation.
The need to quickly provide assistance to victims of accidents or seriously ill has created the need for the construction of helipads at selected hospitals. Their operation and the conditions of use are governed by regulation of the Ministry of Health on Hospital Emergency Ward (SOR) and rules required by the Civil Aviation Authority.
The direct vicinity of the helipads causes impact of landing and departing helicopters on buildings, people and hospital equipment as well as the construction of the airfield. This article presents vibroacoustic impact of helicopters on helipads’ measurement methods and the results of the preliminary measurements to estimate the impact of Helicopter Air Rescue (LPR) on adjacent buildings and surroundings.
Mathematical models describing aerial spraying and the distribution of liquid droplets on a target were presented. Relationships based on “free models” with Gaussian distribution of droplet concentrations and “bound models” that account for the impact of disturbances in the velocity field behind agricultural aircraft were expanded, and the hybrid model too. The results of experimental studies were presented and compared with theoretical calculations. The “bound model” was found to be the most effective solution for describing the physical phenomena that accompany the aerial spraying process.
In this publication a Doctrine for the Conditional Extremization of the Hybrid-Optional Effectiveness Functions Entropy is discussed as a tool for the Reliability Assessments of Engineering Systems. Traditionally, most of the problems having been dealt with in this area relate with the probabilistic problem settings. Regularly, the optimal solutions are obtained through the probability extremizations. It is shown a possibility of the optimal solutions “derivation”, with the help of a model implementing a variational principle which takes into account objectively existing parameters and components of the Markovian process. The presence of an extremum of the objective state probability is observed and determined on the basis of the proposed Doctrine with taking into account the measure of uncertainty of the hybrid-optional effectiveness functions in the view of their entropy. Such approach resembles the well known Jaynes’ Entropy Maximum Principle from theoretical statistical physics adopted in subjective analysis of active systems as the subjective entropy maximum principle postulating the subjective entropy conditional optimization. The developed herewith Doctrine implies objective characteristics of the process rather than subjective individual’s preferences or choices, as well as the states probabilities maximums are being found without solving a system of ordinary linear differential equations of the first order by Erlang corresponding to the graph of the process. Conducted numerical simulation for the proposed mathematical models is illustrated with the plotted diagrams.
As the rotor configuration has the most impact on helicopter properties, the process of determination the assumptions for rotor design is a very important factor in the early stage of rotorcraft development. The following paper presents a mechanical analysis process used at the Institute of Aviation to quickly develop a coaxial rotor prototype applicable in ultra-light unmanned helicopter which has the potential for further improvement of its flight parameters. The article describes the rotor analysis process due to its feasibility based on commercially available solutions, the process of formulating assumptions for the entire structure, MES analysis of the rotor parts all leading to creation of the rotor prototype.
Ruben Di Battista, Maria Teresa Scelzo and Maria Rosaria Vetrano
Slushes are two-phase solid-liquid single-species cryogenic fluids that exhibit an increased density and a greater heat capacity with respect to the corresponding normal boiling point liquids. These promising features are of large interest for applications that exploit slush as a thermal fluid, like super magnets refrigeration, cryogenic cooling of bio-materials or air conditioning, and for aerospace systems that use slush fluids as fuel or oxidizer. Several programs in the frame of the research on Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) as a new-generation fuel for aerospace propulsion have been started in the past. This work was carried out in the framework of a VKI research activity promoted by the Predict ESA Technology Research Programme, to investigate experimentally and numerically the behavior of slush flows in a representative upper stage feeding line. In this paper, we present a simulation based on a granular two-fluid model on an isothermal solid liquid mixture (slurry) and a Nitrogen slush (SLN2) fluid flowing in a horizontal pipe. A finite-volumes discretization using the software library OpenFOAM was benchmarked against experimental and numerical literature data, to assess the accuracy of the code in predicting pressure drops along the pipe axis and solid particle distribution across the pipe diameter. Moreover, the effects of concentration and inlet velocity are investigated. We show that the numerical model fairly reproduces the literature data in terms of important aspects as the solid volume fraction distribution and the pressure drops, especially for high flow rates.
This article presents adhesive shearing test methods, focusing especially on the ASTM D5656 method. These methods will be briefly characterized and compared. The most important concerns about the D5656 method are described. With the use of ASTM D1002 and D5656 methods, the influence of adherend surface preparation on shearing properties of the bond is evaluated. Compared to sandblasting only, sandblasting followed by the FPL process (sulfochromate etching of aluminum) increased shear strength of joints by 35 % for ASTM D1002 tests and by 48% for D5656 tests. Comparing these two methods, shear strength obtained in D5656 tests is about two times higher than in D1002 tests. The cause for this phenomena is much larger adherend thickness in the D5656 method, which provides the coupons with increased stiffness. Shear modulus, calculated with 3 different calculation methods, showed differences in obtained results, which points to necessary actualization of D5656 standard.